One of the most difficult activities for the nurse leader is leading change in an organization. The nurse leader needs to have excellent leadership skills, be conversant with change theories, and be able to partner and work effectively with staff in achieving the vision. Being a change coach involves navigating change, generating and mobilizing resources toward innovation, and improving outcomes.
After completing this chapter, you should now be able to:
- Explain why nurses have the opportunity to be change agents.
- Identify how different theorists explain change.
- Discuss how the nursing process is similar to the change process.
- Discuss the medicine wheel as a change model.
- Describe the nurse leader’s role in implementing change and the call to action.
- Differentiate among change strategies.
- Recognize how to handle resistance to change.
- How do you normally respond to change in your personal life? How did you respond to your first clinical situation?
- Identify the leadership skills that a nurse leader must apply when implementing change.
- Identify a change occurring in your workplace. Using one of the change theories presented in this chapter, analyze how well the change process is working.
- What are some of the contributing factors to the failure of change projects?
- Reflect on how you as a follower can be a positive asset to a change process.
Austin, M. J., & Claassen, J. (2008). Impact of organizational change on organizational culture. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 5(1–2), 321–359. doi:10.1300/J394v05n01_12
Bennis, W., Benne, K., & Chinn, R. (1960). The planning of change (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Bowers, B. (2011). Managing change by empowering staff. Nursing Times, 107(32–33), 19–21.
Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and complexity theories: Back to the future? Journal of Change Management, 4, 309–325.
Charbonneau-Dahlen, B. K. (2015). Hope: The dream catcher-medicine wheel retention model for diverse nursing students. Journal of Theory Construction andTesting, 19(2), 47–54.
Clarke, V., & Holtslander, L. F. (2010). Finding a balanced approach: Incorporating medicine wheel teachings in the care of Aboriginal people at the end of life. Journal ofPalliative Care, 26(1), 34–36.
Dapice, A. N. (2006). The medicine wheel. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17(3), 251–260.
Drucker, P. (1999). Management challenges for the 21st century. New York: Harper Collins.
Estabrooks, C. A., Thompson, D. S., Lovely J. J. E., & Hofmeyer, A. (2006). A guide to knowledge translation theory. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 26(1), 25–36. doi:10.1002/chp.48
Garner, H., Bruce, M. A., & Stellern, J. (2011). The goal wheel: adapting Navajo philosophy and the medicine wheel to work with adolescents. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 36(1), 62–77. doi:10.1080/01933922.2010.537735
Gaudine, A., & Lamb, M. (2015). Nursing leadership and managing working in Canadian health care organizations. Toronto: Pearson.
Gilley, A., Gilley, J. W., & McMillan, H. S. (2009). Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. Performance Improvement Quarterly,21(4), 75–94. doi:10.1002/piq.20039
Havelock, R. (1973). The change agent’s guide to innovation in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology.
Kattelmann, K. K., Conti, K., & Ren, C. (2010). The Medicine Wheel nutrition intervention: A diabetes education study with the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe. Journalof the American Dietetic Association, 109(9), 44–51. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.003
Kouzes, J. M., and Posner, B. (2007). The leadership challenge (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, 8(1), 1–7. Retrieved from http://commonweb.unifr.ch /artsdean/pub/gestens/f/as/files/4655/31876_103146.pdf
Lehman, K. L. (2008). Change management: Magic or mayhem? Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 24(4), 176–184.
Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social sciences. New York: Harper & Row.
Lippitt, R., Watson, J., & Westley, B. (1958). The dynamics of planned change. New York: Harcourt Brace.
MacPhee, M. (2007). Strategies and tools for managing change. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 37(9), 405–413.
McCabe, G. (2008). Mind, body, emotions and spirit: Reaching to the ancestors for healing. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 21(2), 143–152. doi:10.1080/09515070802066847
Morjikian, R. L., Kimball, B., & Joynt, J. (2007) Leading change: The nurse executive’s role in implementing new care delivery models. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 37(9), 399–404. doi:10.1097/01.NNA.0000285141.19000.bc
Quinn, R. E. (2004). Building the bridge as you walk on it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rogers, E. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.
Saskatchewan Ministry of Health. (2011) Patient- and family-centred care: Putting patients and families first. Retrieved from https://www.saskatchewan.ca/governme...y-centred-care
Shirey, M. (2013). Lewin’s theory of planned change as a strategic resource. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(92), 69–72. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e31827f20a9
Stefancyk, A., Hancock, B., & Meadows, M. T. (2013). The nurse manager: Change agent, change coach? Nursing Administration Quarterly, 37(1), 13–17. doi:10.1097/NAQ.0b013e31827514f4
Sullivan, E. J. (2012). Effective leadership and management in nursing (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Thietart, R. A., & Forgues, B. (1995). Chaos theory and organization. Organization Science, 6(1), 19–31.
Tyson, B. (2010). Havelock’s theory of change. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubpm.com/change-ma...ory-of-change/
Wagner, C. M., & Huber, D. L. (2003). Catastrophe and nursing turnover: Nonlinear models. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 33(9), 486–492.
Walsh-Buhl, M. L. (2017). Please don’t just hang a feather on a program or put a medicine wheel on your logo and think ‘oh well, this will work.’ Family and CommunityHealth, 40(1), 81–87. doi:10.10 97/FCH.0000000000000125
Weiss, S. A., & Tappen, R. M. (2015). Essentials of nursing leadership and management(6th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
Wonglimpiyarat, J., & Yuberk, N. (2005). In support of innovation management and Roger’s Innovation Diffusion Theory. Government Information Quarterly, 22(3), 411–422. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2005.05.005
Yukl, G. (2013). Leading in organizations (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.