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Key Terms Chapter 08: The Appendicular Skeleton

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    62659
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    acetabulum
    large, cup-shaped cavity located on the lateral side of the hip bone; formed by the junction of the ilium, pubis, and ischium portions of the hip bone
    acromial end of the clavicle
    lateral end of the clavicle that articulates with the acromion of the scapula
    acromial process
    acromion of the scapula
    acromioclavicular joint
    articulation between the acromion of the scapula and the acromial end of the clavicle
    acromion
    flattened bony process that extends laterally from the scapular spine to form the bony tip of the shoulder
    adductor tubercle
    small, bony bump located on the superior aspect of the medial epicondyle of the femur
    anatomical neck
    line on the humerus located around the outside margin of the humeral head
    ankle joint
    joint that separates the leg and foot portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the talus bone of the foot inferiorly, and the distal end of the tibia, medial malleolus of the tibia, and lateral malleolus of the fibula superiorly
    anterior border of the tibia
    narrow, anterior margin of the tibia that extends inferiorly from the tibial tuberosity
    anterior inferior iliac spine
    small, bony projection located on the anterior margin of the ilium, below the anterior superior iliac spine
    anterior sacroiliac ligament
    strong ligament between the sacrum and the ilium portions of the hip bone that supports the anterior side of the sacroiliac joint
    anterior superior iliac spine
    rounded, anterior end of the iliac crest
    apical ectodermal ridge
    enlarged ridge of ectoderm at the distal end of a limb bud that stimulates growth and elongation of the limb
    arcuate line of the ilium
    smooth ridge located at the inferior margin of the iliac fossa; forms the lateral portion of the pelvic brim
    arm
    region of the upper limb located between the shoulder and elbow joints; contains the humerus bone
    auricular surface of the ilium
    roughened area located on the posterior, medial side of the ilium of the hip bone; articulates with the auricular surface of the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint
    base of the metatarsal bone
    expanded, proximal end of each metatarsal bone
    bicipital groove
    intertubercular groove; narrow groove located between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus
    calcaneus
    heel bone; posterior, inferior tarsal bone that forms the heel of the foot
    capitate
    from the lateral side, the third of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid and lunate proximally, the trapezoid laterally, the hamate medially, and primarily with the third metacarpal distally
    capitulum
    knob-like bony structure located anteriorly on the lateral, distal end of the humerus
    carpal bone
    one of the eight small bones that form the wrist and base of the hand; these are grouped as a proximal row consisting of (from lateral to medial) the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform bones, and a distal row containing (from lateral to medial) the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones
    carpal tunnel
    passageway between the anterior forearm and hand formed by the carpal bones and flexor retinaculum
    carpometacarpal joint
    articulation between one of the carpal bones in the distal row and a metacarpal bone of the hand
    clavicle
    collarbone; elongated bone that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum medially and the acromion of the scapula laterally
    coracoclavicular ligament
    strong band of connective tissue that anchors the coracoid process of the scapula to the lateral clavicle; provides important indirect support for the acromioclavicular joint
    coracoid process
    short, hook-like process that projects anteriorly and laterally from the superior margin of the scapula
    coronoid fossa
    depression on the anterior surface of the humerus above the trochlea; this space receives the coronoid process of the ulna when the elbow is maximally flexed
    coronoid process of the ulna
    projecting bony lip located on the anterior, proximal ulna; forms the inferior margin of the trochlear notch
    costoclavicular ligament
    band of connective tissue that unites the medial clavicle with the first rib
    coxal bone
    hip bone
    cuboid
    tarsal bone that articulates posteriorly with the calcaneus bone, medially with the lateral cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones
    deltoid tuberosity
    roughened, V-shaped region located laterally on the mid-shaft of the humerus
    distal radioulnar joint
    articulation between the head of the ulna and the ulnar notch of the radius
    distal tibiofibular joint
    articulation between the distal fibula and the fibular notch of the tibia
    elbow joint
    joint located between the upper arm and forearm regions of the upper limb; formed by the articulations between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius
    femur
    thigh bone; the single bone of the thigh
    fibula
    thin, non-weight-bearing bone found on the lateral side of the leg
    fibular notch
    wide groove on the lateral side of the distal tibia for articulation with the fibula at the distal tibiofibular joint
    flexor retinaculum
    strong band of connective tissue at the anterior wrist that spans the top of the U-shaped grouping of the carpal bones to form the roof of the carpal tunnel
    foot
    portion of the lower limb located distal to the ankle joint
    forearm
    region of the upper limb located between the elbow and wrist joints; contains the radius and ulna bones
    fossa
    (plural = fossae) shallow depression on the surface of a bone
    fovea capitis
    minor indentation on the head of the femur that serves as the site of attachment for the ligament to the head of the femur
    glenohumeral joint
    shoulder joint; formed by the articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus
    glenoid cavity
    (also, glenoid fossa) shallow depression located on the lateral scapula, between the superior and lateral borders
    gluteal tuberosity
    roughened area on the posterior side of the proximal femur, extending inferiorly from the base of the greater trochanter
    greater pelvis
    (also, greater pelvic cavity or false pelvis) broad space above the pelvic brim defined laterally by the fan-like portion of the upper ilium
    greater sciatic foramen
    pelvic opening formed by the greater sciatic notch of the hip bone, the sacrum, and the sacrospinous ligament
    greater sciatic notch
    large, U-shaped indentation located on the posterior margin of the ilium, superior to the ischial spine
    greater trochanter
    large, bony expansion of the femur that projects superiorly from the base of the femoral neck
    greater tubercle
    enlarged prominence located on the lateral side of the proximal humerus
    hallux
    big toe; digit 1 of the foot
    hamate
    from the lateral side, the fourth of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the lunate and triquetrum proximally, the fourth and fifth metacarpals distally, and the capitate laterally
    hand
    region of the upper limb distal to the wrist joint
    head of the femur
    rounded, proximal end of the femur that articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint
    head of the fibula
    small, knob-like, proximal end of the fibula; articulates with the inferior aspect of the lateral condyle of the tibia
    head of the humerus
    smooth, rounded region on the medial side of the proximal humerus; articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
    head of the metatarsal bone
    expanded, distal end of each metatarsal bone
    head of the radius
    disc-shaped structure that forms the proximal end of the radius; articulates with the capitulum of the humerus as part of the elbow joint, and with the radial notch of the ulna as part of the proximal radioulnar joint
    head of the ulna
    small, rounded distal end of the ulna; articulates with the ulnar notch of the distal radius, forming the distal radioulnar joint
    hip bone
    coxal bone; single bone that forms the pelvic girdle; consists of three areas, the ilium, ischium, and pubis
    hip joint
    joint located at the proximal end of the lower limb; formed by the articulation between the acetabulum of the hip bone and the head of the femur
    hook of the hamate bone
    bony extension located on the anterior side of the hamate carpal bone
    humerus
    single bone of the upper arm
    iliac crest
    curved, superior margin of the ilium
    iliac fossa
    shallow depression found on the anterior and medial surfaces of the upper ilium
    ilium
    superior portion of the hip bone
    inferior angle of the scapula
    inferior corner of the scapula located where the medial and lateral borders meet
    inferior pubic ramus
    narrow segment of bone that passes inferiorly and laterally from the pubic body; joins with the ischial ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus
    infraglenoid tubercle
    small bump or roughened area located on the lateral border of the scapula, near the inferior margin of the glenoid cavity
    infraspinous fossa
    broad depression located on the posterior scapula, inferior to the spine
    intercondylar eminence
    irregular elevation on the superior end of the tibia, between the articulating surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles
    intercondylar fossa
    deep depression on the posterior side of the distal femur that separates the medial and lateral condyles
    intermediate cuneiform
    middle of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, medially with the medial cuneiform bone, laterally with the lateral cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the second metatarsal bone
    interosseous border of the fibula
    small ridge running down the medial side of the fibular shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the fibula and tibia
    interosseous border of the radius
    narrow ridge located on the medial side of the radial shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius bones
    interosseous border of the tibia
    small ridge running down the lateral side of the tibial shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the tibia and fibula
    interosseous border of the ulna
    narrow ridge located on the lateral side of the ulnar shaft; for attachment of the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius
    interosseous membrane of the forearm
    sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the radius and ulna bones
    interosseous membrane of the leg
    sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the shafts of the tibia and fibula bones
    interphalangeal joint
    articulation between adjacent phalanx bones of the hand or foot digits
    intertrochanteric crest
    short, prominent ridge running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the posterior side of the proximal femur
    intertrochanteric line
    small ridge running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior side of the proximal femur
    intertubercular groove (sulcus)
    bicipital groove; narrow groove located between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus
    ischial ramus
    bony extension projecting anteriorly and superiorly from the ischial tuberosity; joins with the inferior pubic ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus
    ischial spine
    pointed, bony projection from the posterior margin of the ischium that separates the greater sciatic notch and lesser sciatic notch
    ischial tuberosity
    large, roughened protuberance that forms the posteroinferior portion of the hip bone; weight-bearing region of the pelvis when sitting
    ischiopubic ramus
    narrow extension of bone that connects the ischial tuberosity to the pubic body; formed by the junction of the ischial ramus and inferior pubic ramus
    ischium
    posteroinferior portion of the hip bone
    knee joint
    joint that separates the thigh and leg portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, and the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia
    lateral border of the scapula
    diagonally oriented lateral margin of the scapula
    lateral condyle of the femur
    smooth, articulating surface that forms the distal and posterior sides of the lateral expansion of the distal femur
    lateral condyle of the tibia
    lateral, expanded region of the proximal tibia that includes the smooth surface that articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur as part of the knee joint
    lateral cuneiform
    most lateral of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, medially with the intermediate cuneiform bone, laterally with the cuboid bone, and anteriorly with the third metatarsal bone
    lateral epicondyle of the femur
    roughened area of the femur located on the lateral side of the lateral condyle
    lateral epicondyle of the humerus
    small projection located on the lateral side of the distal humerus
    lateral malleolus
    expanded distal end of the fibula
    lateral supracondylar ridge
    narrow, bony ridge located along the lateral side of the distal humerus, superior to the lateral epicondyle
    leg
    portion of the lower limb located between the knee and ankle joints
    lesser pelvis
    (also, lesser pelvic cavity or true pelvis) narrow space located within the pelvis, defined superiorly by the pelvic brim (pelvic inlet) and inferiorly by the pelvic outlet
    lesser sciatic foramen
    pelvic opening formed by the lesser sciatic notch of the hip bone, the sacrospinous ligament, and the sacrotuberous ligament
    lesser sciatic notch
    shallow indentation along the posterior margin of the ischium, inferior to the ischial spine
    lesser trochanter
    small, bony projection on the medial side of the proximal femur, at the base of the femoral neck
    lesser tubercle
    small, bony prominence located on anterior side of the proximal humerus
    ligament of the head of the femur
    ligament that spans the acetabulum of the hip bone and the fovea capitis of the femoral head
    limb bud
    small elevation that appears on the lateral side of the embryo during the fourth or fifth week of development, which gives rise to an upper or lower limb
    linea aspera
    longitudinally running bony ridge located in the middle third of the posterior femur
    lunate
    from the lateral side, the second of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the radius proximally, the capitate and hamate distally, the scaphoid laterally, and the triquetrum medially
    medial border of the scapula
    elongated, medial margin of the scapula
    medial condyle of the femur
    smooth, articulating surface that forms the distal and posterior sides of the medial expansion of the distal femur
    medial condyle of the tibia
    medial, expanded region of the proximal tibia that includes the smooth surface that articulates with the medial condyle of the femur as part of the knee joint
    medial cuneiform
    most medial of the three cuneiform tarsal bones; articulates posteriorly with the navicular bone, laterally with the intermediate cuneiform bone, and anteriorly with the first and second metatarsal bones
    medial epicondyle of the femur
    roughened area of the distal femur located on the medial side of the medial condyle
    medial epicondyle of the humerus
    enlarged projection located on the medial side of the distal humerus
    medial malleolus
    bony expansion located on the medial side of the distal tibia
    metacarpal bone
    one of the five long bones that form the palm of the hand; numbered 1–5, starting on the lateral (thumb) side of the hand
    metacarpophalangeal joint
    articulation between the distal end of a metacarpal bone of the hand and a proximal phalanx bone of the thumb or a finger
    metatarsal bone
    one of the five elongated bones that forms the anterior half of the foot; numbered 1–5, starting on the medial side of the foot
    metatarsophalangeal joint
    articulation between a metatarsal bone of the foot and the proximal phalanx bone of a toe
    midcarpal joint
    articulation between the proximal and distal rows of the carpal bones; contributes to movements of the hand at the wrist
    navicular
    tarsal bone that articulates posteriorly with the talus bone, laterally with the cuboid bone, and anteriorly with the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones
    neck of the femur
    narrowed region located inferior to the head of the femur
    neck of the radius
    narrowed region immediately distal to the head of the radius
    obturator foramen
    large opening located in the anterior hip bone, between the pubis and ischium regions
    olecranon fossa
    large depression located on the posterior side of the distal humerus; this space receives the olecranon process of the ulna when the elbow is fully extended
    olecranon process
    expanded posterior and superior portions of the proximal ulna; forms the bony tip of the elbow
    patella
    kneecap; the largest sesamoid bone of the body; articulates with the distal femur
    patellar surface
    smooth groove located on the anterior side of the distal femur, between the medial and lateral condyles; site of articulation for the patella
    pectineal line
    narrow ridge located on the superior surface of the superior pubic ramus
    pectoral girdle
    shoulder girdle; the set of bones, consisting of the scapula and clavicle, which attaches each upper limb to the axial skeleton
    pelvic brim
    pelvic inlet; the dividing line between the greater and lesser pelvic regions; formed by the superior margin of the pubic symphysis, the pectineal lines of each pubis, the arcuate lines of each ilium, and the sacral promontory
    pelvic girdle
    hip girdle; consists of a single hip bone, which attaches a lower limb to the sacrum of the axial skeleton
    pelvic inlet
    pelvic brim
    pelvic outlet
    inferior opening of the lesser pelvis; formed by the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis, right and left ischiopubic rami and sacrotuberous ligaments, and the tip of the coccyx
    pelvis
    ring of bone consisting of the right and left hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx
    phalanx bone of the foot
    (plural = phalanges) one of the 14 bones that form the toes; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the big toe, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of toes two through five
    phalanx bone of the hand
    (plural = phalanges) one of the 14 bones that form the thumb and fingers; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of the fingers two through five
    pisiform
    from the lateral side, the fourth of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the anterior surface of the triquetrum
    pollex
    (also, thumb) digit 1 of the hand
    posterior inferior iliac spine
    small, bony projection located at the inferior margin of the auricular surface on the posterior ilium
    posterior sacroiliac ligament
    strong ligament spanning the sacrum and ilium of the hip bone that supports the posterior side of the sacroiliac joint
    posterior superior iliac spine
    rounded, posterior end of the iliac crest
    proximal radioulnar joint
    articulation formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the head of the radius
    proximal tibiofibular joint
    articulation between the head of the fibula and the inferior aspect of the lateral condyle of the tibia
    pubic arch
    bony structure formed by the pubic symphysis, and the bodies and inferior pubic rami of the right and left pubic bones
    pubic body
    enlarged, medial portion of the pubis region of the hip bone
    pubic symphysis
    joint formed by the articulation between the pubic bodies of the right and left hip bones
    pubic tubercle
    small bump located on the superior aspect of the pubic body
    pubis
    anterior portion of the hip bone
    radial fossa
    small depression located on the anterior humerus above the capitulum; this space receives the head of the radius when the elbow is maximally flexed
    radial notch of the ulna
    small, smooth area on the lateral side of the proximal ulna; articulates with the head of the radius as part of the proximal radioulnar joint
    radial tuberosity
    oval-shaped, roughened protuberance located on the medial side of the proximal radius
    radiocarpal joint
    wrist joint, located between the forearm and hand regions of the upper limb; articulation formed proximally by the distal end of the radius and the fibrocartilaginous pad that unites the distal radius and ulna bone, and distally by the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum carpal bones
    radius
    bone located on the lateral side of the forearm
    sacroiliac joint
    joint formed by the articulation between the auricular surfaces of the sacrum and ilium
    sacrospinous ligament
    ligament that spans the sacrum to the ischial spine of the hip bone
    sacrotuberous ligament
    ligament that spans the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity of the hip bone
    scaphoid
    from the lateral side, the first of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the radius proximally, the trapezoid, trapezium, and capitate distally, and the lunate medially
    scapula
    shoulder blade bone located on the posterior side of the shoulder
    shaft of the femur
    cylindrically shaped region that forms the central portion of the femur
    shaft of the fibula
    elongated, slender portion located between the expanded ends of the fibula
    shaft of the humerus
    narrow, elongated, central region of the humerus
    shaft of the radius
    narrow, elongated, central region of the radius
    shaft of the tibia
    triangular-shaped, central portion of the tibia
    shaft of the ulna
    narrow, elongated, central region of the ulna
    soleal line
    small, diagonally running ridge located on the posterior side of the proximal tibia
    spine of the scapula
    prominent ridge passing mediolaterally across the upper portion of the posterior scapular surface
    sternal end of the clavicle
    medial end of the clavicle that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum
    sternoclavicular joint
    articulation between the manubrium of the sternum and the sternal end of the clavicle; forms the only bony attachment between the pectoral girdle of the upper limb and the axial skeleton
    styloid process of the radius
    pointed projection located on the lateral end of the distal radius
    styloid process of the ulna
    short, bony projection located on the medial end of the distal ulna
    subpubic angle
    inverted V-shape formed by the convergence of the right and left ischiopubic rami; this angle is greater than 80 degrees in females and less than 70 degrees in males
    subscapular fossa
    broad depression located on the anterior (deep) surface of the scapula
    superior angle of the scapula
    corner of the scapula between the superior and medial borders of the scapula
    superior border of the scapula
    superior margin of the scapula
    superior pubic ramus
    narrow segment of bone that passes laterally from the pubic body to join the ilium
    supraglenoid tubercle
    small bump located at the superior margin of the glenoid cavity
    suprascapular notch
    small notch located along the superior border of the scapula, medial to the coracoid process
    supraspinous fossa
    narrow depression located on the posterior scapula, superior to the spine
    surgical neck
    region of the humerus where the expanded, proximal end joins with the narrower shaft
    sustentaculum tali
    bony ledge extending from the medial side of the calcaneus bone
    talus
    tarsal bone that articulates superiorly with the tibia and fibula at the ankle joint; also articulates inferiorly with the calcaneus bone and anteriorly with the navicular bone
    tarsal bone
    one of the seven bones that make up the posterior foot; includes the calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, and lateral cuneiform bones
    thigh
    portion of the lower limb located between the hip and knee joints
    tibia
    shin bone; the large, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg
    tibial tuberosity
    elevated area on the anterior surface of the proximal tibia
    trapezium
    from the lateral side, the first of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the first and second metacarpals distally, and the trapezoid medially
    trapezoid
    from the lateral side, the second of the four distal carpal bones; articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the second metacarpal distally, the trapezium laterally, and the capitate medially
    triquetrum
    from the lateral side, the third of the four proximal carpal bones; articulates with the lunate laterally, the hamate distally, and has a facet for the pisiform
    trochlea
    pulley-shaped region located medially at the distal end of the humerus; articulates at the elbow with the trochlear notch of the ulna
    trochlear notch
    large, C-shaped depression located on the anterior side of the proximal ulna; articulates at the elbow with the trochlea of the humerus
    ulna
    bone located on the medial side of the forearm
    ulnar notch of the radius
    shallow, smooth area located on the medial side of the distal radius; articulates with the head of the ulna at the distal radioulnar joint
    ulnar tuberosity
    roughened area located on the anterior, proximal ulna inferior to the coronoid process
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