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Key Terms Chapter 18: The Cardiovascular System: Blood

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    62669
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    ABO blood group
    blood-type classification based on the presence or absence of A and B glycoproteins on the erythrocyte membrane surface
    agglutination
    clustering of cells into masses linked by antibodies
    agranular leukocytes
    leukocytes with few granules in their cytoplasm; specifically, monocytes, lymphocytes, and NK cells
    albumin
    most abundant plasma protein, accounting for most of the osmotic pressure of plasma
    anemia
    deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin
    antibodies
    (also, immunoglobulins or gamma globulins) antigen-specific proteins produced by specialized B lymphocytes that protect the body by binding to foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses
    anticoagulant
    substance such as heparin that opposes coagulation
    antithrombin
    anticoagulant that inactivates factor X and opposes the conversion of prothrombin (factor II) into thrombin in the common pathway
    B lymphocytes
    (also, B cells) lymphocytes that defend the body against specific pathogens and thereby provide specific immunity
    basophils
    granulocytes that stain with a basic (alkaline) stain and store histamine and heparin
    bilirubin
    yellowish bile pigment produced when iron is removed from heme and is further broken down into waste products
    biliverdin
    green bile pigment produced when the non-iron portion of heme is degraded into a waste product; converted to bilirubin in the liver
    blood
    liquid connective tissue composed of formed elements—erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets—and a fluid extracellular matrix called plasma; component of the cardiovascular system
    bone marrow biopsy
    diagnostic test of a sample of red bone marrow
    bone marrow transplant
    treatment in which a donor’s healthy bone marrow with its stem cells replaces diseased or damaged bone marrow of a patient
    bruise
    localized bleeding under the skin due to damaged blood vessels
    buffy coat
    thin, pale layer of leukocytes and platelets that separates the erythrocytes from the plasma in a sample of centrifuged blood
    carbaminohemoglobin
    compound of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin, and one of the ways in which carbon dioxide is carried in the blood
    clotting factors
    group of 12 identified substances active in coagulation
    coagulation
    formation of a blood clot; part of the process of hemostasis
    colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)
    glycoproteins that trigger the proliferation and differentiation of myeloblasts into granular leukocytes (basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils)
    common pathway
    final coagulation pathway activated either by the intrinsic or the extrinsic pathway, and ending in the formation of a blood clot
    cross matching
    blood test for identification of blood type using antibodies and small samples of blood
    cytokines
    class of proteins that act as autocrine or paracrine signaling molecules; in the cardiovascular system, they stimulate the proliferation of progenitor cells and help to stimulate both nonspecific and specific resistance to disease
    defensins
    antimicrobial proteins released from neutrophils and macrophages that create openings in the plasma membranes to kill cells
    deoxyhemoglobin
    molecule of hemoglobin without an oxygen molecule bound to it
    diapedesis
    (also, emigration) process by which leukocytes squeeze through adjacent cells in a blood vessel wall to enter tissues
    embolus
    thrombus that has broken free from the blood vessel wall and entered the circulation
    emigration
    (also, diapedesis) process by which leukocytes squeeze through adjacent cells in a blood vessel wall to enter tissues
    eosinophils
    granulocytes that stain with eosin; they release antihistamines and are especially active against parasitic worms
    erythrocyte
    (also, red blood cell) mature myeloid blood cell that is composed mostly of hemoglobin and functions primarily in the transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide
    erythropoietin (EPO)
    glycoprotein that triggers the bone marrow to produce RBCs; secreted by the kidney in response to low oxygen levels
    extrinsic pathway
    initial coagulation pathway that begins with tissue damage and results in the activation of the common pathway
    ferritin
    protein-containing storage form of iron found in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen
    fibrin
    insoluble, filamentous protein that forms the structure of a blood clot
    fibrinogen
    plasma protein produced in the liver and involved in blood clotting
    fibrinolysis
    gradual degradation of a blood clot
    formed elements
    cellular components of blood; that is, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
    globin
    heme-containing globular protein that is a constituent of hemoglobin
    globulins
    heterogeneous group of plasma proteins that includes transport proteins, clotting factors, immune proteins, and others
    granular leukocytes
    leukocytes with abundant granules in their cytoplasm; specifically, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
    hematocrit
    (also, packed cell volume) volume percentage of erythrocytes in a sample of centrifuged blood
    hematopoietic stem cell
    type of pluripotent stem cell that gives rise to the formed elements of blood (hemocytoblast)
    heme
    red, iron-containing pigment to which oxygen binds in hemoglobin
    hemocytoblast
    hematopoietic stem cell that gives rise to the formed elements of blood
    hemoglobin
    oxygen-carrying compound in erythrocytes
    hemolysis
    destruction (lysis) of erythrocytes and the release of their hemoglobin into circulation
    hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
    (also, erythroblastosis fetalis) disorder causing agglutination and hemolysis in an Rh+ fetus or newborn of an Rh mother
    hemophilia
    genetic disorder characterized by inadequate synthesis of clotting factors
    hemopoiesis
    production of the formed elements of blood
    hemopoietic growth factors
    chemical signals including erythropoietin, thrombopoietin, colony-stimulating factors, and interleukins that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular blood progenitor cells
    hemorrhage
    excessive bleeding
    hemosiderin
    protein-containing storage form of iron found in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen
    hemostasis
    physiological process by which bleeding ceases
    heparin
    short-acting anticoagulant stored in mast cells and released when tissues are injured, opposes prothrombin
    hypoxemia
    below-normal level of oxygen saturation of blood (typically <95 percent)
    immunoglobulins
    (also, antibodies or gamma globulins) antigen-specific proteins produced by specialized B lymphocytes that protect the body by binding to foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses
    interleukins
    signaling molecules that may function in hemopoiesis, inflammation, and specific immune responses
    intrinsic pathway
    initial coagulation pathway that begins with vascular damage or contact with foreign substances, and results in the activation of the common pathway
    jaundice
    yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes due to excess bilirubin in the blood
    leukemia
    cancer involving leukocytes
    leukocyte
    (also, white blood cell) colorless, nucleated blood cell, the chief function of which is to protect the body from disease
    leukocytosis
    excessive leukocyte proliferation
    leukopenia
    below-normal production of leukocytes
    lymphocytes
    agranular leukocytes of the lymphoid stem cell line, many of which function in specific immunity
    lymphoid stem cells
    type of hematopoietic stem cells that gives rise to lymphocytes, including various T cells, B cells, and NK cells, all of which function in immunity
    lymphoma
    form of cancer in which masses of malignant T and/or B lymphocytes collect in lymph nodes, the spleen, the liver, and other tissues
    lysozyme
    digestive enzyme with bactericidal properties
    macrophage
    phagocytic cell of the myeloid lineage; a matured monocyte
    megakaryocyte
    bone marrow cell that produces platelets
    memory cell
    type of B or T lymphocyte that forms after exposure to a pathogen
    monocytes
    agranular leukocytes of the myeloid stem cell line that circulate in the bloodstream; tissue monocytes are macrophages
    myeloid stem cells
    type of hematopoietic stem cell that gives rise to some formed elements, including erythrocytes, megakaryocytes that produce platelets, and a myeloblast lineage that gives rise to monocytes and three forms of granular leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils)
    natural killer (NK) cells
    cytotoxic lymphocytes capable of recognizing cells that do not express “self” proteins on their plasma membrane or that contain foreign or abnormal markers; provide generalized, nonspecific immunity
    neutrophils
    granulocytes that stain with a neutral dye and are the most numerous of the leukocytes; especially active against bacteria
    oxyhemoglobin
    molecule of hemoglobin to which oxygen is bound
    packed cell volume (PCV)
    (also, hematocrit) volume percentage of erythrocytes present in a sample of centrifuged blood
    plasma
    in blood, the liquid extracellular matrix composed mostly of water that circulates the formed elements and dissolved materials throughout the cardiovascular system
    plasmin
    blood protein active in fibrinolysis
    platelet plug
    accumulation and adhesion of platelets at the site of blood vessel injury
    platelets
    (also, thrombocytes) one of the formed elements of blood that consists of cell fragments broken off from megakaryocytes
    pluripotent stem cell
    stem cell that derives from totipotent stem cells and is capable of differentiating into many, but not all, cell types
    polycythemia
    elevated level of hemoglobin, whether adaptive or pathological
    polymorphonuclear
    having a lobed nucleus, as seen in some leukocytes
    positive chemotaxis
    process in which a cell is attracted to move in the direction of chemical stimuli
    red blood cells (RBCs)
    (also, erythrocytes) one of the formed elements of blood that transports oxygen
    reticulocyte
    immature erythrocyte that may still contain fragments of organelles
    Rh blood group
    blood-type classification based on the presence or absence of the antigen Rh on the erythrocyte membrane surface
    serum
    blood plasma that does not contain clotting factors
    sickle cell disease
    (also, sickle cell anemia) inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin molecules are malformed, leading to the breakdown of RBCs that take on a characteristic sickle shape
    T lymphocytes
    (also, T cells) lymphocytes that provide cellular-level immunity by physically attacking foreign or diseased cells
    thalassemia
    inherited blood disorder in which maturation of RBCs does not proceed normally, leading to abnormal formation of hemoglobin and the destruction of RBCs
    thrombin
    enzyme essential for the final steps in formation of a fibrin clot
    thrombocytes
    platelets, one of the formed elements of blood that consists of cell fragments broken off from megakaryocytes
    thrombocytopenia
    condition in which there are too few platelets, resulting in abnormal bleeding (hemophilia)
    thrombocytosis
    condition in which there are too many platelets, resulting in abnormal clotting (thrombosis)
    thrombopoietin
    hormone secreted by the liver and kidneys that prompts the development of megakaryocytes into thrombocytes (platelets)
    thrombosis
    excessive clot formation
    thrombus
    aggregation of fibrin, platelets, and erythrocytes in an intact artery or vein
    tissue factor
    protein thromboplastin, which initiates the extrinsic pathway when released in response to tissue damage
    totipotent stem cell
    embryonic stem cell that is capable of differentiating into any and all cells of the body; enabling the full development of an organism
    transferrin
    plasma protein that binds reversibly to iron and distributes it throughout the body
    universal donor
    individual with type O blood
    universal recipient
    individual with type AB+ blood
    vascular spasm
    initial step in hemostasis, in which the smooth muscle in the walls of the ruptured or damaged blood vessel contracts
    white blood cells (WBCs)
    (also, leukocytes) one of the formed elements of blood that provides defense against disease agents and foreign materials
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