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Key Terms Chapter 27: The Reproductive System

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    62679
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    alveoli
    (of the breast) milk-secreting cells in the mammary gland
    ampulla
    (of the uterine tube) middle portion of the uterine tube in which fertilization often occurs
    antrum
    fluid-filled chamber that characterizes a mature tertiary (antral) follicle
    areola
    highly pigmented, circular area surrounding the raised nipple and containing areolar glands that secrete fluid important for lubrication during suckling
    Bartholin’s glands
    (also, greater vestibular glands) glands that produce a thick mucus that maintains moisture in the vulva area; also referred to as the greater vestibular glands
    blood–testis barrier
    tight junctions between Sertoli cells that prevent bloodborne pathogens from gaining access to later stages of spermatogenesis and prevent the potential for an autoimmune reaction to haploid sperm
    body of uterus
    middle section of the uterus
    broad ligament
    wide ligament that supports the uterus by attaching laterally to both sides of the uterus and pelvic wall
    bulbourethral glands
    (also, Cowper’s glands) glands that secrete a lubricating mucus that cleans and lubricates the urethra prior to and during ejaculation
    cervix
    elongate inferior end of the uterus where it connects to the vagina
    clitoris
    (also, glans clitoris) nerve-rich area of the vulva that contributes to sexual sensation during intercourse
    corpus albicans
    nonfunctional structure remaining in the ovarian stroma following structural and functional regression of the corpus luteum
    corpus cavernosum
    either of two columns of erectile tissue in the penis that fill with blood during an erection
    corpus luteum
    transformed follicle after ovulation that secretes progesterone
    corpus spongiosum
    (plural = corpora cavernosa) column of erectile tissue in the penis that fills with blood during an erection and surrounds the penile urethra on the ventral portion of the penis
    ductus deferens
    (also, vas deferens) duct that transports sperm from the epididymis through the spermatic cord and into the ejaculatory duct; also referred as the vas deferens
    ejaculatory duct
    duct that connects the ampulla of the ductus deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle at the prostatic urethra
    endometrium
    inner lining of the uterus, part of which builds up during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and then sheds with menses
    epididymis
    (plural = epididymides) coiled tubular structure in which sperm start to mature and are stored until ejaculation
    fimbriae
    fingerlike projections on the distal uterine tubes
    follicle
    ovarian structure of one oocyte and surrounding granulosa (and later theca) cells
    folliculogenesis
    development of ovarian follicles from primordial to tertiary under the stimulation of gonadotropins
    fundus
    (of the uterus) domed portion of the uterus that is superior to the uterine tubes
    gamete
    haploid reproductive cell that contributes genetic material to form an offspring
    glans penis
    bulbous end of the penis that contains a large number of nerve endings
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    hormone released by the hypothalamus that regulates the production of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland
    gonads
    reproductive organs (testes in men and ovaries in women) that produce gametes and reproductive hormones
    granulosa cells
    supportive cells in the ovarian follicle that produce estrogen
    hymen
    membrane that covers part of the opening of the vagina
    infundibulum
    (of the uterine tube) wide, distal portion of the uterine tube terminating in fimbriae
    inguinal canal
    opening in abdominal wall that connects the testes to the abdominal cavity
    isthmus
    narrow, medial portion of the uterine tube that joins the uterus
    labia majora
    hair-covered folds of skin located behind the mons pubis
    labia minora
    thin, pigmented, hairless flaps of skin located medial and deep to the labia majora
    lactiferous ducts
    ducts that connect the mammary glands to the nipple and allow for the transport of milk
    lactiferous sinus
    area of milk collection between alveoli and lactiferous duct
    Leydig cells
    cells between the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce testosterone; a type of interstitial cell
    mammary glands
    glands inside the breast that secrete milk
    menarche
    first menstruation in a pubertal female
    menses
    shedding of the inner portion of the endometrium out though the vagina; also referred to as menstruation
    menses phase
    phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrial lining is shed
    menstrual cycle
    approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the uterus consisting of a menses phase, a proliferative phase, and a secretory phase
    mons pubis
    mound of fatty tissue located at the front of the vulva
    Müllerian duct
    duct system present in the embryo that will eventually form the internal female reproductive structures
    myometrium
    smooth muscle layer of uterus that allows for uterine contractions during labor and expulsion of menstrual blood
    oocyte
    cell that results from the division of the oogonium and undergoes meiosis I at the LH surge and meiosis II at fertilization to become a haploid ovum
    oogenesis
    process by which oogonia divide by mitosis to primary oocytes, which undergo meiosis to produce the secondary oocyte and, upon fertilization, the ovum
    oogonia
    ovarian stem cells that undergo mitosis during female fetal development to form primary oocytes
    ovarian cycle
    approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the ovary consisting of a follicular phase and a luteal phase
    ovaries
    female gonads that produce oocytes and sex steroid hormones (notably estrogen and progesterone)
    ovulation
    release of a secondary oocyte and associated granulosa cells from an ovary
    ovum
    haploid female gamete resulting from completion of meiosis II at fertilization
    penis
    male organ of copulation
    perimetrium
    outer epithelial layer of uterine wall
    polar body
    smaller cell produced during the process of meiosis in oogenesis
    prepuce
    (also, foreskin) flap of skin that forms a collar around, and thus protects and lubricates, the glans penis; also referred as the foreskin
    primary follicles
    ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and one layer of cuboidal granulosa cells
    primordial follicles
    least developed ovarian follicles that consist of a single oocyte and a single layer of flat (squamous) granulosa cells
    proliferative phase
    phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium proliferates
    prostate gland
    doughnut-shaped gland at the base of the bladder surrounding the urethra and contributing fluid to semen during ejaculation
    puberty
    life stage during which a male or female adolescent becomes anatomically and physiologically capable of reproduction
    rugae
    (of the vagina) folds of skin in the vagina that allow it to stretch during intercourse and childbirth
    scrotum
    external pouch of skin and muscle that houses the testes
    secondary follicles
    ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and multiple layers of granulosa cells
    secondary sex characteristics
    physical characteristics that are influenced by sex steroid hormones and have supporting roles in reproductive function
    secretory phase
    phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium secretes a nutrient-rich fluid in preparation for implantation of an embryo
    semen
    ejaculatory fluid composed of sperm and secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands
    seminal vesicle
    gland that produces seminal fluid, which contributes to semen
    seminiferous tubules
    tube structures within the testes where spermatogenesis occurs
    Sertoli cells
    cells that support germ cells through the process of spermatogenesis; a type of sustentacular cell
    sperm
    (also, spermatozoon) male gamete
    spermatic cord
    bundle of nerves and blood vessels that supplies the testes; contains ductus deferens
    spermatid
    immature sperm cells produced by meiosis II of secondary spermatocytes
    spermatocyte
    cell that results from the division of spermatogonium and undergoes meiosis I and meiosis II to form spermatids
    spermatogenesis
    formation of new sperm, occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
    spermatogonia
    (singular = spermatogonium) diploid precursor cells that become sperm
    spermiogenesis
    transformation of spermatids to spermatozoa during spermatogenesis
    suspensory ligaments
    bands of connective tissue that suspend the breast onto the chest wall by attachment to the overlying dermis
    tertiary follicles
    (also, antral follicles) ovarian follicles with a primary or secondary oocyte, multiple layers of granulosa cells, and a fully formed antrum
    testes
    (singular = testis) male gonads
    theca cells
    estrogen-producing cells in a maturing ovarian follicle
    uterine tubes
    (also, fallopian tubes or oviducts) ducts that facilitate transport of an ovulated oocyte to the uterus
    uterus
    muscular hollow organ in which a fertilized egg develops into a fetus
    vagina
    tunnel-like organ that provides access to the uterus for the insertion of semen and from the uterus for the birth of a baby
    vulva
    external female genitalia
    Wolffian duct
    duct system present in the embryo that will eventually form the internal male reproductive structures
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