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Medicine LibreTexts

4.10: Summary

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    • The characteristics of living organisms can be summarised by the words “MRS GREN.”
    • There are 4 main types of tissue namely: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues.
    • Epithelial tissues form the skin and line the gut, respiratory tract, bladder etc.
    • Connective tissues form tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue, blood, cartilage and bone, and are found in the dermis of the skin.
    • Muscular tissues contract and consist of 3 types: smooth, skeletal and cardiac.
    • Vertebrate bodies have a head, trunk and tail. Body organs are located in body cavities. 11 body systems perform essential body functions most of which maintain a stable environment or homeostasis within the animal.
    • Directional terms describe the location of parts of the body in relation to other parts.


    • Ruth Lawson (Otago Polytechnic; Dunedin, New Zealand)