Arthritis/Degenerative Joint Disease - Arthritis can be caused by a number of different factors both genetic and behavioral. Age of the individual should be noted to make the best possible diagnosis of the type of arthritis observed. osteophytes or small spicules of bone may be present at the margins of the joint or within the joint itself. A ridge of osteophytic change may also be present around the margin of the joint. Erosion is frequently seen along with osteophytosis; which may be seen as increased porosity or pitting.
Eburnation - Extreme erosion may occur when the soft tissue within a joint when cartilage is no longer present. The result is bone on bone contact that creates grooving on the surface of the joint, overall making a smooth shiny surface. (Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin 1998)
Enthesopathy - Calcified muscular or ligamentous attachments. Most often seen at the site of the Achilles tendon attachment site, ischial tuberosities, and ilial crests. (Aufderheide and Rodriguez- Martin 1998)
Fractures - Several types of fractures occur in the postcranial bones including: greenstick, impacted, simple, coumpound, comminuted, compressed, spiral, Colles's, and parry.
Schmorl's Nodes - Depression or cavity caused by herniation of the vertebral disc. Located on either the superior or inferior aspect of the body of a vertebra. The depressions are oval or linear in shape, with relatively smooth margins. Generally seen as a sign of advanced age. (Mann and Hunt 2005)
Spina Bifida - Incomplete closure of the neural arches of the sacral vertebrae. Note the sacral vertebrae four and five may be open naturally. this condition is both genetic and environmentally controlled. (Mann and Hunt 2005)