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Glossary

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    34290
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    Glossary Entries

    Word(s)

    Definition

    Image Caption Link Source
    Health Absence of disease        
    Wellness optimal state of mind and body        
    Behavior Modification the alteration of behavioral patterns through specific techniques        
    Transtheoretical Model the theory of the stages of change for behavior change        
    Goal Setting the process of identifying something that you want to accomplish and establishing measurable goals and timeframes        
    Cardiorespiratory system The term used to describe the relationship between the cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels) and respiratory system (lungs).        
    Calorie A term used to describe food energy. Scientifically, it is the amount of energy needed to raise one kilogram of water, 1 degree Celsius. More accurately, it is one kilocalorie.        
    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) The basic unit of energy used by the cells.        
    Aerobic energy system The term used to describe the way cells produce ATP. In this case, the cells require oxygen to assist in ATP production.        
    Mitochondria The area (organelle) of the cell where ATP is produced.        
    Creatine phosphate a compound found in the cells and used by the immediate energy system that can be used to produce ATP.        
    Non-oxidative energy system a term used to describe the way cells produce ATP. In this case, cells do not require oxygen to produce ATP.        
    Glucose The simplest form of sugars found in the blood.        
    Tidal volume The amount of air measured during inspiration or expiration.        
    Diffusion capacity The amount of air that is transferred from the lungs to the blood.        
    Areterial-vein difference (aVO2diff) The difference between the oxygen found in arterial blood and venous blood.        
    Principle of Reversibility The fitness principle describing how fitness is lost while detraining.        
    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) The maximum amount of oxygen the body can take in and utilize.        
    Specificity A fitness principle describing how fitness improvements or adaptations to exercise stress are specific to the type of training that is performed.        
    Overload The fitness principle describing how adaption to exercise stress is driven by progressively increasing the workload during training.        
    Target Heart Rate (THR) A term describing heart rate zones that represent an intensity range—a low end heart rate and a high end rate—used as a guide for exercise intensity.        
    Max heart rate (MHR) The maximum number of beats per minute the heart can contract.        
    Resting Heart Rate (RHR) The minimum number of beats per minute the heart contracts.        
    Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) The difference between the maximum heart rate and the resting heart rate. This term is also used to describe a method for calculating target heart rate.        
    Talk-test A selfassessment used during exercise used to estimate the intensity of the work being performed. The scale used, called the Borg Scale, ranges from 6 to 20        
    Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) A selfassessment used during exercise used to estimate the intensity of the work being performed. The scale used, called the Borg Scale, ranges from 6 to 20.        
    Muscles organ in the body that causes movement        
    Skeletal Muscle Responsible for body movement        
    Cardiac Muscle- Responsible for the contraction of the heart        
    Muscle Fiber - individual muscle cell        
    Motor unit a nerve controlling a group of muscle fibers        
    Myofibrils which are threadlike structures running the length of the muscle fiber        
    Insertion point where the muscle is attached to a bone that moves        
    Origin - point where the muscle is attached to a bone that remains in a fixed position        
    Action Potential the electrical current that cause a muscle to contract        
    Sliding Filament Theory the theory of how our muscles move        
    Dynamic contraction muscle movements that cause bodily movements        
    Repetition One movement pattern        
    Set a group of repetitions        
    Periodization Breaking resistance training into different training phases        
    Strength - the maximal amount a force that can produced one time        
    Hypertrophy - muscle fibers getting bigger        
    Atrophy muscle fibers getting smaller        
    Isokinetic- muscle is contracted at a constant tempo        
    Isometric muscle contraction cause no bodily movement        
    Static Flexibility the outermost limit of a stretched muscle measured while holding a stretch in place. This can also refer to a technique used to improve the outermost limit of a stretched muscle performed by holding stretches for 15-60 seconds.        
    Dynamic Flexibility : the ability of the muscle to return to its resting length after being stretched.        
    Elasticity : the ability of the muscle to return to its resting length after being stretched.        
    Plasticity :the tendency of a muscle to assume a greater length after stretching        
    Proprioceptors : sensors within muscles that send feedback to the central nervous system conveying muscular length and tension. The two primary sensors related to flexibility are Golgi Tendon Organs (GTO’s) and muscle spindles.        
    Reciprocal Inhibition the principle that when one muscle is stimulated to contract the opposing muscle is will relax.        
    Autogenic Inhibition a technique used to improve range of motion performed by gently bouncing back and forth to stretch and relax the muscle.        
    Active stretching a technique used to improve range of motion performed by gently bouncing back and forth to stretch and relax the muscle.        
    Passive stretching a technique used to improve range of motion performed by gently bouncing back and forth to stretch and relax the muscle.        
    Ballistic stretching a technique used to improve range of motion performed by gently bouncing back and forth to stretch and relax the muscle.        
    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) a technique used to improve range of motion performed by a sequence of stretching and contracting muscles. These sequences target the neuromuscular structures to facilitate relaxation of reflexive activity.        
    Body Composition The measurement of the body’s proportion of fat mass to fat free mass        
    Fat Mass The amount of fat tissue in the body often expressed as a percentage of total body mass.        
    Fat Free Mass (FFM) not fat tissue in the body such as bones, muscles, ligaments, and blood        
    Essential Fat: the amount of fat needed for vital body functions.        
    Non-essential fat: the amount of fat that exceeds the necessary fat needed for vital body functions. This fat is considered energy storage.        
    Overweight : the accumulation of nonessential body fat to the point that it adversely affects health.        
    Obesity: is characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat and can be defined as a more serious degree of being overweight.        
    Adipose Tissue another term for fat. More specifically it is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes.        
    Subcutaneous fat fat tissue stored below the skin’s surface.        
    Visceral Fat : fat tissue stored around central organs.        
    Android shape a body shape used to help characterize body fat distribution in which fat is stored in the abdominal region. The android shape is also called the “apple” shape.        
    Gynoid shape a body shape used to help characterize body fat distribution in which fat is stored in the hips, buttocks, and thighs. It is also called the pear shape.        
    Body Mass Index (BMI) an index based on concept that weight and height should be proportionate. It is calculated by dividing weight by the height squared (weight/height2).        
    Hydrodensitometry This method attempts to measure the density of the body by using water displacement.        
    Dual Energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DEXA) A method of measuring body composition that uses low energy x-rays that also measure bone density.        
    Air Displacement Plethysmography : A method of measuring body composition that measures the density of the body by using air displacement.        
    Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA): A method of measuring body composition by emitting a small electrical current through the body and using the amount of resistance encountered by this current to predict body fat content.        
    Skinfold Analysis A method of measuring body composition by measuring the diameter of pinched skin at various sites on the body.        
    Macronutrients are the nutrients the body needs in larger amounts        
    Micronutrients: are the nutrients the body needs in smaller amounts        
    Carbohydrates The word carbohydrate literally means "hydrated carbon," or carbon with water. Can be either simple or complex.        
    Fats Lipids consist of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols (cholesterol). Can be either Saturated or Unsaturated.        
    Proteins Protein is another major macronutrient that, like carbohydrates, consists of small repeating units. But instead of sugars, proteins are made up of amino acids.  Can be either complete or incomplete        
    Soluble Fiber Fiber that is found to lower cholesterol levels        
    Insoluble Fiber Fiber that binds to water and allows for soft fecal matter        
    Vitamins Organic substances found in food that can either be fat or water soluble        
    Minerals Inorganic substances found in food or spices.        
    Binge Eating Disorder

    Eating large amounts (typically an entire day’s worth) of calories in one sitting.  Often done at night and alone.

           
    Anorexia Nervosa A disorder where someone constricts caloric intake leading to extreme leanness        
    Bulimia Nervosa Typically associated with large amounts of food, paired with a purge.  This is what makes up the Binge-Purge cycle        
    Stress the body’s physical, mental, and emotional response to a particular stimulus        
    Stressor Something that causes stress        
    Eustress Good Stress        
    Distress Good Stress        
    Adrenalin a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, especially in conditions of stress, increasing rates of blood circulation and breathing        
    Cancer The name given to a collection of related diseases in which the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues        
    Malignant

    Tumors that do not invade nearby tissues.

           

    Benign

    Tumors that do not invade nearby tissues.

           
    Carcinogens Any substance that causes cancer, such as the chemicals in tobacco smoke; and radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun.        
    Breast cancer Cancer that starts in the cells and/or tissues of the breast.  It can occur in both men and women        
    Cervical cancer Cancer that starts in the cells of the cervix.  Long-lasting infections with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause almost all cases of cervical cancer        
    Colorectal cancer Cancer that starts in the colon or rectum        
    Lung cancer Most lung cancer diagnoses are either non-small cell lung cancer or small cell lung cancer, depending on the way the cells look under a microscope.  Most cases of lung cancer are caused by smoking        
    Prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas, cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids        
    Skin cancer Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged from 15 to 34 years.        
    Testicular cancer Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged from 15 to 34 years.        
    Addiction Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences        
    Cocaine A powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America        
    Cocaine A depressant approved for use in the treatment of narcolepsy, a disorder that causes daytime "sleep attacks"        
    Heroin An opioid drug made from morphine, a natural substance extracted from the seed pod of various opium poppy plants.        
    LSD A hallucinogen manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains.        
    Marijuana Marijuana is made from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The main psychoactive (mind-altering) chemical in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC        
    MDMA (Ecstasy / Molly) A synthetic, psychoactive drug that has similarities to both the stimulant amphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline        
    Methamphetamine An extremely addictive stimulant amphetamine drug.        
    Inhalants Solvents, aerosols, and gases found in household products such as spray paints, markers, glues, and cleaning fluids; also nitrites (e.g., amyl nitrite), which are prescription medications for chest pain        
    STDs More than 25 infectious organisms that are transmitted primarily through sexual activity.         
    Chlamydia Chlamydia (pronounced kla-MID-ee-uh) is a common STD/STI caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.        
    Gonorrhea Gonorrhea (pronounced gon-uh-REE-uh) is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which can grow rapidly and multiply easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract.        
    Genital Herpes Genital herpes is a contagious infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two different strains, or types, of HSV: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Both can cause genital herpes, although most cases of genital herpes are caused by HSV-2.        
    HIV & AIDS HIV, or the human immunodeficiency virus,7 is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).  The advanced stage of HIV infection is known as AIDS        
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    HPV is the most common STD/STI. More than 40 HPV types exist, and all of them can infect both men and women.

           
    Syphilis Syphilis infections, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, are passed from person to person during vaginal, anal, or oral sex through direct contact with sores, called chancres.        
    Bacterial vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a common, possibly sexually transmitted, vaginal infection in women of reproductive age.        
    Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis (pronounced trik-uh-muh-NAHY-uh-sis) infection is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and is common in young, sexually active women        
    Heart Disease The disease of the heart that can be deemed deadly to about 425,000 people per year.        
    Atherosclerosis The narrowing and hardening of the arteries        
    Angina Pectoris Crushing chest pains        
    Arrhythmia A lack of “normal” heart rhythm        
    Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack        
    Cerebrovascular accident Also known as CVA, is a term used for strokes        
    Ischemic Stroke A stroke that happens when vessels in the brain rupture causing heavy bleeding within the brain        
    Hemorrhagic stroke A stroke that happens when vessels in the brain rupture causing heavy bleeding within the brain        
    HDL Cholesterol

    High-Density Lipoprotein, also known as the good type of cholesterol.  

           
    LDL Cholesterol Low-Density Lipoprotein also known as the good type of cholesterol.        
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