2.2: Special Investigation
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Urinalysis is not a single test - complete urinalysis includes physical, chemical, and microscopic examinations. Dipstick urinalysis is certainly convenient but false positive and false negative results may occur. It is considered an inexpensive diagnostic test able to identify patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) as indicated by the presence of leucocyte esterases and nitrites, although infection may exist in the absence of pyuria and, in the elderly population, pyuria may develop in the absence of UTI. Microscopic haematuria can be easily identified by dipsticking because of the presence of haemoglobin. The detection of haematuria is important because the condition is associated with a 4 – 5% risk of diagnosing a urological disorder or malignancy within 3 years. Because of the high prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and the increase of LUTS in the presence of UTI, all guidelines on the management of patients with LUTS and urinary incontinence, endorse the use of urinalysis in primary care management.