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  • Boutron, I., Moher, D., Altman, D. G., Schulz, K. F., Ravaud, P., and CONSORT Group.

    2008. Extending the CONSORT statement to randomized trials of nonpharmacologic treat-

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    Groves, A. K., Maman, S., Msomi, S., Makhanya, N., and Moodley, D. 2010. The complexity of consent: women’s experiences testing for HIV at an antenatal clinic in Durban, South Africa.

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    Lema, V. M., Mbondo, M., and Kamau, E. M. 2009. Informed consent for clinical trials: a re- view. East African Medical Journal, 86, 133–42.

    Molineaux, L. and Gramiccia, G. 1980. The Garki Project: research on the epidemiology and con- trol of malaria in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa [Online]. Geneva: World Health Organi- zation. Available at: <>.

    Nuffield Council On Bioethics. 2002. The ethics of research related to healthcare in developing countries [Online]. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Available at: <http:// healthcare-in-developing-countries-I.pdf>.

    Nuffield Council On Bioethics. 2005. The ethics of research related to healthcare in developing countries: a follow-up discussion paper [Online]. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Available at: < up_Discussion_Paper.pdf>.

    Rid, A., Saxena, A., Baqui, A. H., et al. 2014. Placebo use in vaccine trials: recommendations of a WHO expert panel. Vaccine, 32, 4708–12.

    Schulz, K. F., Altman, D. G., and Moher, D. 2010. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guide- lines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. PLoS Med, 7, e1000251. Available at: <>.

    World Medical Association. 2008. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects [Online]. World Medical Association. Available at: <www.>.