Skip to main content
Medicine LibreTexts

7.5: Summary

  • Page ID

    Given the increasing complexity of client needs and the shift to community care, leadership and interprofessional collaboration are paramount in our current health system. Sound interprofessional leadership and collaborative practice should be the cornerstone of any nursing leadership practice, whether one is working with or mentoring a group of employees, or engaged with a multidisciplinary team in a complex client’s care.

    Client and family engagement has never been more important in our health care system than it is today. As health care providers and nurse leaders, our ultimate role is to meet our client needs with a client- and family-centred philosophy, which aims to understand “where the client is at.” As a registered nurse, make this engagement happen—promote it and nurture it. It is the client’s right, and indeed the client can be one of your greatest resources in determining a plan of care for successful client outcomes.

    Leadership and interprofessional collaboration are strengthened with the knowledge and skill set of emotional intelligence, reflective practice, shared leadership, appreciative inquiry, and with the ten lessons in collaboration so eloquently outlined by Gardner (2005). Healthy and positive team dynamics are essential for optimal interprofessional collaborative relationships. It is critical to identify and understand any challenges related to these dynamics and to have transparent team discussions about such challenges early on in your team relationships.

    Always seek to understand others, place your focus on strengths, and continuously reflect and learn when things do not go as expected. With these, your nursing world will open to endless possibilities, for the client, for your team, and for you personally.

    Additional resources on interprofessional collaboration can be found on the Canadian Nurses Association website.

    After completing this chapter, you should now be able to:

    1. Describe the increasing complexity of health care needs in the community and the implications of that complexity within our current health system.
    2. Illustrate the need for interprofessional collaboration in community care.
    3. Explain the importance of client and family engagement in their care.
    4. Identify parallels between leadership characteristics or styles and interprofessional leadership within collaborative practice.
    5. Describe specific skills and practices that support interprofessional leadership and collaboration.
    6. Recognize cornerstone components that can lead to successful collaboration.
    7. Describe relational dynamics of positive teams.


    1. Discuss a client situation in which an interprofessional collaborative approach could be helpful.
    2. In the above scenario, discuss how you would set the stage for interprofessional collaboration, including client and family engagement.
    3. Identify the elements of appreciative inquiry and how appreciative inquiry supports nurse leaders in community practice.
    4. Discuss what reflective practice means to you and how it has or will help you in your nursing practice.
    5. Create a scenario where some or all of the ten lessons in collaboration (Gardner, 2005) could support a complex client situation.
    6. What did you learn from the “Build a Tower, Build a Team” video? How do team dynamics impact the team and its success?


    Anonson, J. M. S., Ferguson L., Macdonald, M. B., Murray, B. L., Fowler-Kerry, S., & Bally, J. M. G. (2009). The anatomy of interprofessional leadership: An investigation of leadership behaviors in team-based health care. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(3), 17–25. doi:10.1002/jls.20120

    Bernabei, R., Landi, F., Onder, G., Liperoti, R., & Gambassi, G. (2008). Second and third generation assessment instruments: The birth of standardization in geriatric care. Journal of Gerontology, 63A(3), 308–313.

    Bisaria, A. (2011). Intelligence and leadership: Climbing the corporate ladder. CMA Magazine, March/April.

    Browne, B. (2008). What is appreciative inquiry? Imagine Chicago, 1-11. Retrieved from:

    Caldwell, L., & Grobbel, C. C. (2013). The importance of reflective practice in nursing. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 6(3), 319–326.

    Cameron, B., Carmargo Plazas, P., Salas, A. S., Bourque Bearskin, R. L., & Hungler, K. (2014). Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: A call for nursing action. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 37(3), E1–E16.

    Canadian Institute for Health Information [CIHI]. (2010). RAI-Home Care (RAI-HC) users manual, Canadian version. Ottawa: CIHI.

    Canadian Nurses Association [CNA]. (2011). Inter-professional collaboration [Position statement]. Retrieved from

    Canadian Nurses Association [CNA]. (2015). Primary health care [Position statement]. Retrieved from

    Canadian Nurses Association [CNA]. (2016). Dementia in Canada: Recommendations to Support Care for Canada’s Aging Population. Brief prepared for the Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. Retrieved from

    Cavanaugh, S. (2013). Nurse to know: Off the beaten track. Canadian Nurse, 109(5), 34–35.

    Clark, R. A., Hartline, M. D., & Jones, K. C. (2008). The effects of leadership style on hotel employees’ commitment to service quality. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 50(2), 209–231. doi:10.1177/1938965508315371

    College of Nurses of Ontario. (2015). Practice reflection: Learning from practice. Retrieved from–learning-from-practice.pdf

    Cummings, G. G., MacGregor, T., Davey, M., Lee, H., Wong, C. A., Lo, E., Muise, M., & Stafford, E. (2009). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies,8, 1–23. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.08.006

    Daft, R. (2011). The leadership experience (5th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western.

    Darvish, H., & Faezeh, R. (2011). The impact of authentic leadership on job satisfaction and team commitment. Management and Marketing, 6(3), 421–436.

    Eason, T. (2009). Emotional intelligence and nursing leadership: A successful combination. Creative Nursing, 15(4) 184–185. doi:10.1891/1078–4535.15.4.184

    Eggertson, L. (2016). Nurse to know: It’s about living. Canadian Nurse, 112(6), 36–38.

    Faure, M. (2006). Problem solving was never this easy: Transformational change through appreciative inquiry. Performance Improvement, 45(9), 22–31. doi:10.1002/pfi.017

    Franklin, C. M., Bernhardt, J. M., Lopez, R. P., Long-Middleton, E. R., & Davis, S. (2015). Interprofessional teamwork and collaboration between community health workers and healthcare teams: An integrative review. Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology. doi:10.1177/2333392815573312

    Gardner, D. B. (2005). Ten lessons in collaboration. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 10(1). doi:10.3912/OJIN.Vol10No01Man01

    Geller, L. (2013). Nurse to know: No place like home. Canadian Nurse, 109(4), 34–35.

    Geller, L. (2014). Nurse to know: An emerging leader in her field. Canadian Nurse, 110(7), 36–37.

    Geller, L. (2015a). Nurse to know: Looking at the whole picture. Canadian Nurse, 111(1), 34–36.

    Geller, L. (2015b). Nurse to know: On being present and aware. Canadian Nurse, 111(3), 26–27.

    Government of Canada. (2015). Report of the advisory panel on healthcare innovation. Retrieved from

    Gray, L. C., Berg, K., Fries, B. E., Henrard, J-C., Hirdes, J. P., Steel, K., & Morris, J. N. (2009). Sharing clinical information across care settings: The birth of an integrated assessment system. BioMed Central Health Services Research, 9(71), 71–80. doi:10.1186/1472–6963–9-71

    Health Canada. (2010). Healthy Workplaces. Retrieved from

    Health Council of Canada. (2013). Canadas most vulnerable: Improving health care for First Nations, Inuit, and Métis seniors. Toronto: Health Council of Canada. Retrieved from

    Hirdes, J. P., Ljunggren, G., Morris, J. N., Frijters, D. H., Soveri, H. F., Gray, L., Björkgren, M, & Gilgen, R. (2008). Reliability of the interRAI suite of assessment instruments: A 12-country study of an integrated health information system. BMC Health Services Research, 8, 277–287. doi:10.1186/1472–6963–8-277

    Hirdes, J. P., Poss, J. W., & Curtin-Telegdi, N. (2008). The method for assigning priority levels (MAPLe): A new decision-support system for allocating home care services. BMC Medicine, 6, 9–19. doi:10.1186/1741–7015–6-9

    Howse, E., & Grant, L. G. (2015). Health care organizations. In P. S. Yoder-Wise, L. G. Grant, & S. Regan (Eds.) Leading and Managing in Canadian Nursing (pp. 125–144). Toronto: Elsevier.

    Huron, D. (2017). Nurse to know: Optimizing the role. Canadian Nurse, 113(1), 36–38.

    Jaimet, K. (2013a). Nurse to know: Tapping into her power. Canadian Nurse, 109(7), 34–35.

    Jaimet, K. (2013b). Nurse to know: A history making practice. Canadian Nurse, 109(8), 32–33.

    Jones, R. (2010). Appreciative inquiry: More than just a fad? British Journal of Healthcare Management, 16(3), 114–122. doi:10.12968/bjhc.2010.16.3.46818

    Kwan, C-W., Chi, I., Lam, T-P., Lam, K-F., & Chou, K-L. (2000). Validation of Minimum Data Set for Home Care assessment instrument (MDS-HC) for Hong Kong Chinese elders. Clinical Gerontologist, 21(4), 35–48.

    Leung, A. C., Liu, C. P., Chow, N. W., & Chi, I. (2004). Cost-benefit of a case management project for the community-dwelling frail elderly in Hong Kong. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 23(1), 70-85. doi:10.1177/0733464804263088

    Lewis, D., Medland, J., Malone, S., Murphy, M., Reno, K., & Vaccaro, M. (2006). Appreciative leadership: Defining effective leadership methods. Organization Development Journal, 24(1), 87–100.

    Mackay, S., Pearson, J., Hogg, P., Fawcett, T., & Mercer, C. (2010). Does high EI make for good leaders? Synergy, May, 22–24.

    McAllister, K., & Luckcock, T. (2009). Appreciative inquiry: A fresh approach to continuous improvement in public services. Housing Care and Support, 12(1), 30–33.

    Mitchell, L.A., Hirdes, J., Poss, J. W., Slegers-Boyd, C., Caldarelli, H., & Martin, L. (2015). Informal caregivers of clients with neurological conditions: Profiles, patterns and risk factors for distress from a home care prevalence study. BMC Health Services Research, 15, 350. doi:10.1186/s12913–015–1010–1

    Naylor, M. D. (2012). Advancing high value transitional care: The central role of nursing and its leadership. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 36(2), 115–126. doi:10.1097/NAQ.0b013e31824a040b

    Neill, M., Hayward, K. S., & Peterson, T. (2007). Students’ perceptions of the interprofessional team in practice through the application of servant leadership principles. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21(4), 425–432. doi:10.1080/13561820701443512

    Pan, D., & Howard, Z. (2010). Distributing leadership and cultivating dialogue with collaborative EBIP. Library Management, 31(7), 494–504. doi:10.1108/01435121011071193

    Reeves, S., Macmillan, K., & van Soeren, M. (2010). Leadership of interprofessional health and social care teams: a socio-historical analysis. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(3), 258–264. doi:10.111/j.1365–2834.2010.01077x

    Richer, M., Ritchie, J., & Marchionni, C. (2010). Appreciative inquiry in health care. British Journal of Healthcare Management, 16(4), 164–172.

    Romanow, R. J. (2002). Building on values: The future of health care in Canada—Final report. Ottawa: Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada. Retrieved from

    Samad, S. (2009). The influence of emotional intelligence on effective leadership among managers in Malaysian business organizations. The Business Review, Cambridge, 13(1), 164–170.

    Sanford, K. D., & Moore, S. L. (2015). Dyad Leadership in Healthcare: When one plus one is greater that two. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

    Schofield, R., Forchuk, C., Montgomery, P., Rudnick, A., Edwards, B., Meier, A., & Speechley, M. (2016). Comparing personal health practices: Individuals with mental illness and the general Canadian population. Canadian Nurse, 112(5), 23–27.

    Shamian, J. (2007). Home and community care in Canada: The unfinished policy. In B. Campbell, & G. Marchildon. (Eds.). Medicare: Facts, myths, problems & promise (pp. 291–296). Toronto: James Lorimer.

    Souza-Junior, V. D., Mendes, I. A. C., Mazzo, A., & Godoy, S. (2016). Application of telenursing in nursing practice: An integrative literature review. Applied Nursing Research, 29, 254–260. doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2015.05.005

    Stall, N., Nowaczynski, M., & Sinha, S. K. (2014). Systematic review of outcomes from home-based primary care programs for homebound older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 62(12), 2243–2251. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13088

    Statistics Canada. (2015). Population projections for Canada, provinces and territories.Retrieved from–520-x/2010001/aftertoc-aprestdm1-eng.htm

    Xyrichis, A., & Lowton, K. (2008). What fosters or prevents inter-professional teamworking in primary and community care? A literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(1), 140–153. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.01.015