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Have you ever wanted to reference something from your instructor’s powerpoint slide or something they said during class or something an expert said at a conference. First, make sure what you want to reference is an original idea from your instructor and not just something from your required readings that they have repeated in class. You always want to go to the primary source if possible, and avoid citing your instructor’s powerpoint slides.
If it is something they said, you reference it as a Personal Communication in the text only; this means it does not need to go in your reference list (APA, 2010). You must ask their permission to reference them. Here is an example:
- L. Santos (personal communication, November 4, 2019) indicated that it is best to use a trauma-informed nursing approach with all clients.
For a powerpoint slide, you want to provide as much information as possible even if it archived information that is not retrievable. You can indicate that it was powerpoint slides in brackets. Note the URL if one is provided. For example, you may use the following format:
- Morrita, S. (2019). How to cite APA [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from URL