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Medicine LibreTexts

5.7: Summary

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    • Skin consists of two layers: the thin epidermis and under it the thicker dermis.
    • The Epidermis is formed by the division of base cells that push those above them towards the surface where they die and are shed.
    • Keratin, a protein, is deposited in the epidermal cells. It makes skin waterproof.
    • Various skin structures formed in the epidermis are made of keratin. These include: claws, nails, hoofs, horn, hair and feathers.
    • Various Exocrine Glands (with ducts) formed in the epidermis include sweat, sebaceous, and mammary glands.
    • Melanin deposited in cells at the base of the epidermis protects deeper cells from the harmful effects of the sun.
    • The Dermis is composed of loose connective tissue and is well supplied with blood.
    • Beneath the dermis is insulating adipose tissue.
    • Body Temperature is controlled by: sweat, hair erection, dilation and contraction of dermal capillaries and shivering.

    Contributors and Attributions

    • Ruth Lawson (Otago Polytechnic; Dunedin, New Zealand)