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Medicine LibreTexts

5.1: Chapter 5: Bone, Cartilage, and Joints

  • Page ID
    10096
  • C. Premanandan

    This chapter will cover bone, cartilage, and joints.

    Chapter Learning Objectives

    imageBy the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

    • Define the components of bone on the microscopic level when bone is developing and when an animal is skeletally mature.
    • Describe the function of bone
    • Described the methods in which bone is formed.
    • Classify the types of cartilage present in an animal.
    • Describe the structure of each type of cartilage and list the locations where each is present.
    • Describe the structure of tendons, ligaments and synovium.

    Review Questions

    image
    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to answer the following:

    • What are the major organic and inorganic constituents of bone?
    • What are the structure and function of the following cell types:
      • Osteoblast
      • Osteocyte
      • Osteoclast
    • What are the anatomic structures that facilitates communication between osteocytes?
    • Explain the basic process of osteoclastic resorption, naming one important stimulus for resorption?
    • What is the difference between osteoid and bone?
    • What is the difference between woven and lamellar bone?
    • What is the difference between cancellous and compact bone?
    • What is an osteon?
    • What does the term modeling mean in term of bony tissue?
    • What does the term remodeling mean in term of bony tissue? Compare and contrast remodeling and modeling
      • List the fundamental processes in remodeling, in the proper sequence
    • List two instances where bone remodeling plays an important role in NORMAL bone function
    • What does the process of intramembranous ossification involve? Where does it occur?
    • What does the process of endochondral ossification involve?
      • Name sites where this occurs
      • Explain the difference between a primary and secondary ossification center
      • Define the articular epiphyseal complex
      • List the three processes which are essential for endochondral ossification to occur normally
    • What is the physis and the significance of this finding in a histologic section?
    • What are the three types of cartilage and what locations can they be found?
    • What are the predominant components of cartilage ground substance?
    • What is the structure and function of the following:
      • Chondroblast
      • Chondrocyte
      • Perichondrium
      • Sharpey’s fiber
      • Intervertebral disc
      • Synovial membrane