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10.6: Fat-Soluble Vitamins Summary

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    Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    Vitamin Food Sources Recommended Intake for Adults Major Functions Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms Groups at Risk of Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid,carotene, beta-carotene)

    Vitamin A Fact Sheet
    Retinol: beef and chicken liver, skim milk, whole milk, cheddar cheese; Carotenoids: pumpkin, carrots, squash, collards, peas

    Vitamin A in Foods
    700-900 mcg/day

    Antioxidant, vision, cell differentiation, reproduction, immune function

    Xerophthalmia, night blindness, eye infections; poor growth, dry skin, impaired immune function People living in poverty (especially infants and children), premature infants, pregnant and lactating women people who consume low-fat or low-protein diets Hypervitaminosis A: Dry, itchy skin, hair loss, liver damage, joint pain, fractures, birth defects, swelling of the brain 3000 mcg/day

    Vitamin D

    Vitamin D Fact Sheet

    Swordfish, salmon, tuna, orange juice (fortified), milk (fortified), sardines, egg, synthesis from sunlight

    Vitamin D in Foods
    600-800 IU/day (15-20 mcg/day) Absorption and regulation of calcium and phosphorus, maintenance of bone Rickets in children: abnormal growth, misshapen bones, bowed legs, soft bones; osteomalacia in adults Breastfed infants, older adults people with limited sun exposure, people with dark skin

    Calcium deposits in soft tissues, damage to the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys

    4000 IU/day (100 mcg/day)
    Vitamin E

    Vitamin E Fact Sheet
    Sunflower seeds, almonds, hazelnuts,peanuts

    Vitamin E in Foods
    15 mg/day

    Antioxidant, protects cell membranes

    Broken red blood cells, nerve damage People with poor fat absorption, premature infants Inhibition of vitamin K
    clotting factors
    1000 mcg/day from supplemental sources

    Vitamin K

    Vitamin K Fact Sheet

    Vegetable oils, leafy greens, synthesis by intestinal bacteria

    Vitamin K in Foods
    90-120 mcg/day Synthesis of blood clotting proteins and proteins needed for bone health and cell growth Hemorrhage Newborns, people on long term antibiotics Anemia, brain damage Not determined
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Fat-Soluble Vitamins from Human Nutrition, 2020 Edition by Draper, Revilla, & Titchenal, and edited by Christine Bisson to include links to National Institutes of Health - Office of Dietary Supplements - Consumer Fact Sheets and Nutrient Content of Foods from USDA - Agricultural Research Service - Food Data Central - Component Search, is licensed CC BY-NC-SA

    10.6: Fat-Soluble Vitamins Summary is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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