Skills to Develop
- Share an example of a food and nutrition program that seeks to mitigate hunger in the United States and/or Canada.
Physiologically, hunger relates to appetite and is the body’s response to a need for nourishment. Through stomach discomfort or intestinal rumbling, the body alerts the brain that it requires food. This uneasy sensation is easily addressed with a snack or a full meal. However, the term “hunger” also relates to a weakened condition that is a consequence of a prolonged lack of food. People who suffer from this form of hunger typically experience malnourishment, along with poor growth and development.
Adequate food intake that meets nutritional requirements is essential to achieve a healthy, productive lifestyle. However, millions of people in North America, not to mention globally, go hungry and are malnourished each year due to a recurring and involuntary lack of food. The economic crisis of 2008 caused a dramatic increase in hunger across the United States.World Hunger.org. “Hunger in America: 2011 United States Hunger and Poverty Facts.” Accessed October 10, 2011. www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/us_hunger_facts.htm.
Key Hunger Statistics
In 2010, 925 million people around the world were classified as hungry. Although this was a decrease from a historic high of more than one billion people from the previous year, it is still an unbearable number. Every night, millions and millions of people go to sleep hungry due to a lack of the money or resources needed to acquire an adequate amount of food. This graph shows the division of hungry people around the globe.
Key Hunger Terms
A number of terms are used to categorize and classify hunger. Two key terms, food security and food insecurity, focus on status and affect hunger statistics. Another term, malnutrition, refers bad (or mal) nutrition. An individual may eat inappropriately so they do not consume an adequate amount of one or more nutrients. Overnutrition, the overconsumption of one or more nutrients such as energy, often masks malnutrition. Both food security and food insecurity can cause malnutrition.
Most American households are considered to be food secure, which means they have adequate access to food and consume enough nutrients to achieve a healthy lifestyle. However, a minority of US households experiences food insecurity at certain points during the year, which means their access to food is limited due to a lack of money or other resources. This graphic shows the percentage of food-secure and food-insecure households in the United States during the year 2010.
Food insecurity is defined as not having adequate access to food that meets nutritional needs. We often think of food scarcity and insecurity happening in developing countries, not developed countries. While, to some extent, this is true, according to the USDA, about 11.1 percent (14.3 million) of US households were food insecure in 2018. With the COVID19 pandemic in 2020, the numbers will be much bigger. Four percent of US households had “very low food security,” which means one or more people in the household had their food intake disrupted and reduced at times during the year due to insufficient money or resources to buy food. The difference between low and very low food security is that members of low insecurity households have reported problems of food access, but have reported only a few instances of reduced food intake if any. Coleman-Jensen, A. et al. “Key Statistics & Graphics” US Department of Agriculture, (September 2019). African American and Hispanic households experience food insecurity at much higher rates than the national average. Coleman-Jensen, A. et al. “Household Food Security in the United States in 2010.” US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Report, no. ERR-125 (September 2011).
Food insecurity occurs for a variety of reasons. There is no single cause that can lead to an inability to meet one's daily food needs every day. Households with limited resources employ a variety of methods to increase their access to adequate food. Some families purchase junk food and fast food—cheaper options that are also very unhealthy. Other families who struggle with food security supplement the groceries they purchase by participating in government assistance programs. They may also obtain food from emergency providers, such as food banks and soup kitchens in their communities. People who are impaired physically and/or mentally tend to have more food insecurity, particularly children.
A person living in a food-insecure household may suffer from malnutrition, which results from a failure to meet nutrient requirements. This can occur as a result of consuming too little food or not enough key nutrients or too much of the wrong foods. The causes of malnutrition vary among developed and developing parts of the world. Weight is not a good predictor of malnutrition. There are two types of undernutrition/malnutrition. The first is protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) or lack of protein and energy. The second type is micronutrient deficiencies and relates to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake. The World Health Organization estimates about 815 million people in the world suffer from chronic undernourishment. About 22% of the world's children have stunted growth. World Hunger. “2018 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics.” Accessed May 26, 2020. http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm.
Even people who are overweight or obese can suffer from malnutrition if they eat foods that do not meet all of their nutritional needs. There are 1.9 billion people in the world who are overweight or obese. World Health Organization. "Obesity and Overweight." Accessed May 26, 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
Worldwide, three main groups are most at risk of hunger: the rural poor in developing nations who also lack access to electricity and safe drinking water, the urban poor who live in expanding cities and lack the means to buy food, and victims of earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural and man-made catastrophes.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. “Hunger: Frequently Asked Questions.” Accessed October 10, 2011. www.fao.org/hunger/en/
In the United States, food insecurity varies among household types. Rates of food insecurity were higher than the national average (11.1 percent) for the following groups:
- All households with children (13.9 percent),
- Households with children under age 6 (14.3 percent),
- Households with children headed by a single woman (27.8 percent),
- Households with children headed by a single man (15.9 percent),
- Women living alone (14.2 percent),
- Men living alone (12.5 percent),
- Black, non-Hispanic households (21.2 percent),
- Hispanic households (16.2 percent), and
- Low-income households with incomes below 185 percent of the poverty threshold (29.1 percent; the Federal poverty line was $25,465 for a family of four in 2018).
Older adults are also a major at-risk group. Many elderly people are frail and isolated, which affects their ability to meet their dietary requirements. In addition, many have low incomes, limited resources, and difficulty purchasing or preparing food due to health issues or poor mobility. As a result, more than 8.6 million older citizens in the United States face the threat of hunger.National Council on Aging. “SNAP and Senior Hunger Facts.” Accessed May 26, 2020. https://www.ncoa.org/news/resources-for-reporters/get-the-facts/senior-hunger-facts/
One of the groups that struggles with hunger are the millions of homeless people across North America. According to a recent study by the US Conference of Mayors, the majority of reporting cities saw an increase in the number of homeless families.The United States Conference of Mayors. “Hunger and Homelessness Survey: A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America’s Cities, a 27-City Survey.” December 2009. usmayors.org/pressreleases/uploads/USCMHungercompleteWEB2009.pdf. Hunger and homelessness often go hand-in-hand as homeless families and adults turn to soup kitchens or food pantries or resort to begging for food.
Rising hunger rates in the United States particularly affect children. Nearly one out of four children, or 21.6 percent of all American children, lives in a food-insecure household and spends at least part of the year hungry. Coleman-Jensen, A. et al. “Household Food Security in the United States in 2010.” US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Report, no. ERR-125 (September 2011). Hunger delays their growth and development and affects their educational progress because it is more difficult for hungry or malnourished students to concentrate in school. In addition, children who are undernourished are more susceptible to contracting diseases, such as measles and pneumonia.World Hunger. “2011 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics.” Accessed October 10, 2011.
Video 16.7.1: Going Hungry in America
This video examines the effect of hunger on many American children. (click to see video)
The federal government has established a number of programs that work to alleviate hunger and ensure that many low-income families receive the nutrition they require to live a healthy life. A number of programs were strengthened by the passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This legislation authorized funding and set the policy for several key core programs that provide a safety net for food-insecure children across the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture oversees most of the food and nutrition assistance programs.
The Federal Poverty Level
The federal poverty level (FPL) is used to determine eligibility for food-assistance programs. This monetary figure is the minimum amount that a family would need to acquire shelter, food, clothing, and other necessities. It is calculated based on family size and is adjusted for annual inflation. Although many people who fall below the FPL are unemployed, the working poor can qualify for food programs and other forms of public assistance if their income is less than a certain percentage of the federal poverty level, along with other qualifications.
USDA Food Assistance Programs
Government food and nutrition assistance programs that are organized and operated by the USDA work to increase food security. They provide low-income households with access to food, the tools for consuming a healthy diet, and education about nutrition. The USDA monitors the extent and severity of food insecurity via an annual survey. This contributes to the efficiency of food assistance programs as well as the effectiveness of private charities and other initiatives aimed at reducing food insecurity. Coleman-Jensen, A. et al. “Household Food Security in the United States in 2010.” US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Report, no. ERR-125 (September 2011).
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides monthly benefits for low-income households to purchase approved food items at authorized stores. Clients qualify for the program based on available household income, assets, and certain basic expenses. In an average month, SNAP provides benefits to more than forty million people in the United States. Coleman-Jensen, A. et al. “Household Food Security in the United States in 2010.” US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Report, no. ERR-125 (September 2011).
The program provides Electronic Benefit Transfers (EBT) which work similarly to a debit card. Clients receive a card with a certain allocation of money for each month that can be used only for food. In 2010, the average benefit was about $134 per person, per month and total federal expenditures for the program were $68.2 billion. Coleman-Jensen, A. et al. “Household Food Security in the United States in 2010.” US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Report, no. ERR-125 (September 2011).
The Special, Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children
The Special, Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides food packages and/or vouchers to pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as to infants and children up to age five, to promote adequate intake for healthy growth and development. Most state WIC programs provide vouchers that participants use to acquire supplemental packages at authorized stores. In 2010, WIC served approximately 9.2 million participants per month at an average monthly cost of about forty-two dollars per person. Coleman-Jensen, A. et al. “Household Food Security in the United States in 2010.” US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Report, no. ERR-125 (September 2011).
The National School Lunch Program
The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) ensure that children in elementary and middle schools receive at least one healthy meal each school day, or two if both the NSLP and SBP are provided. According to the USDA, these programs operate in over 101,000 public and nonprofit private schools and residential child-care institutions.US Department of Agriculture. “National School Lunch Program.” October 2011. www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Lunch/AboutLunch/NSLPFactSheet.pdf. In 2010, the programs provided meals to an average of 31.6 million children each school day. Fifty-six percent of the lunches served were free, and an additional 10 percent were provided at reduced prices.
Other Food-Assistance Programs for Children
Other government programs provide meals for children after school hours and during summer breaks. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) offers meals and snacks at child-care centers, daycare homes, and after-school programs. Through CACFP, more than 3.2 million children and 112,000 adults receive nutritious meals and snacks each day.US Department of Agriculture. “Child & Adult Care Food Program.” Last modified June 10, 2011. www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/care/. The Summer Food Service Program provides meals to children during summer break. Sponsors include day camps and other recreation programs where at least half of the attendees live in households with incomes below the federal poverty level.US Department of Agriculture. “Summer Food Service Program.” st.TER 14 2011r Congressbrary. Last modified July 20, 2011. http://www.summerfood.usda.gov/default.htm. These and other programs help to fill in the gaps during the typical day of a food-insecure child.
The Head Start Program
Head Start is a health and development program for children ages three to five, from low-income families. The philosophy behind the organization is that early intervention can help address the educational, social, and nutritional deficiencies that children from lower-income families often experience. Launched in 1965, it is one of the longest-running, poverty-related programs in the United States. Today, Head Start programs include education, meals, snacks, and access to other social services and health guidance.US Department of Health and Human Services. “About the Office of Head Start.” Last reviewed February 23, 2011. www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ohs/about/index.html.
Other Forms of Assistance
Other forms of assistance include locally-operated charitable organizations, such as food banks and food pantries, which acquire food from local manufacturers, retailers, farmers, and community members to give to low-income families. Neighborhood soup kitchens provide meals to the homeless and other people in need. These and other organizations are run by nonprofit groups, as well as religious institutions, to provide an additional safety net for those in need of food.
Meals on Wheels
An organization known as Meals on Wheels delivers meals to elderly people who have difficulty buying or making their own food because of poor health or limited mobility. It is the oldest and largest program dedicated to addressing the nutritional needs of senior citizens. Each day, Meals on Wheels volunteers deliver more than one million meals across the United States. The first Meals on Wheels program began in Philadelphia in the 1950s. In the decades since, the organization has expanded into a vast network that serves the elderly in all fifty states and several US territories. Today, Meals on Wheels remains committed to ending hunger among the senior citizen community.Meals on Wheels. “The Meals on Wheels Association of America.” Accessed October 10, 2011. www.mowaa.org/page.aspx?pid=212.
Around the world, nearly one billion people suffer the effects of constant hunger. Key terms related to hunger include food security, which means having continual access to safe, sufficient, nutritious food, and food insecurity, which means not having continual access to safe, sufficient, nutritious food. There are two types of malnutrition. The first is macronutrient deficiency and relates to the lack of adequate protein, which is required for cell growth, maintenance, and repair. The second type of malnutrition is micronutrient deficiency and relates to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake. There are a number of groups at risk for hunger, including the unemployed and underemployed, poor families, the elderly, and the homeless. The United States has a number of federal and state programs, as well as local charities, which provide assistance and education for people who fall into the category of food insecurity.
- Do you believe there are enough government programs currently in place to address the problem of hunger? Why or why not? If not, what additional solutions would you recommend?