In this Chapter. we continue to explore nutrition through the life cycle, this time looking at childhood and adolescence.
- 14.1: Prelude to Lifespan Nutrition During Childhold and Adolescences
- Parents also greatly impact their child’s nutritional choices. This time in a child’s life provides an opportunity for parents and other caregivers to reinforce good eating habits and to introduce new foods into the diet, while remaining mindful of a child’s preferences. Parents should also serve as role models for their children, who will often mimic their behavior and eating habits. Parents must continue to help their school-aged children and adolescents establish healthy eating habits.
- 14.2: Childhood
- Nutritional needs change as children leave the toddler years. From ages four to eight, school-aged children grow consistently, but at a slower rate than infants and toddlers. They also experience the loss of deciduous, or “baby,” teeth and the arrival of permanent teeth, which typically begins at age six or seven. As new teeth come in, many children have some malocclusion, or malposition, of their teeth, which can affect their ability to chew food. Other changes that affect nutrition.
- 14.3: Adolescence
- The onset of puberty is the beginning of adolescence and is the bridge between the childhood years and young adulthood. According to the DRI recommendations, adolescence is divided into two age groups: 9 through 13 years, and 14 through 18 years. Some of the important physiological changes that take place during this stage include the development of primary sex characteristics, or the reproductive organs, along with the onset of menstruation in females.
- 14.4: Late Adolescence
- After puberty, the rate of physical growth slows down. Girls stop growing taller around age sixteen, while boys continue to grow taller until ages eighteen to twenty. One of the psychological and emotional changes that takes place during this life stage includes the desire for independence as adolescents develop individual identities apart from their families.