Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability, the processing and palatability of foods.
- In this Chapter, we provide an overview of nutrition as an evidence-based science and explore the concepts of health, wellness, and disease. We also provide an introduction to the different types of nutrients, health factors, personal health assessment, and the concept of sustainable food systems.
- In Chapter 2, we explore the tools you can use to achieve a healthy diet, as well as important nutrition concepts like balance and moderation.
- Because we know that you may not have a background in biology, we start with a tour through the human body, from the single cell to the full organism, we set up for a discussion about the processes of digestion and absorption, followed by explorations of the other organ systems. After that, we discuss the concept of energy and calories. We also discuss some disorders and diseases related to nutritional health.
- We explore the many types of carbohydrates, including their functions. We also take a look at diabetes and at sugar substitutes.
- In this chapter, we look at the types, structure, and roles of lipids, and we explain the different types of cholesterol in the blood. We also explore topics of interest such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and trans fats.
- A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism.
- Drinking water, also known as potable water or improved drinking water, is water safe enough for drinking and food preparation. Globally, in 2012, 89% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4 billion had access to tap water while another 2.3 billion had access to wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces. This can result in infectious diarrhea such as cholera and typhoid among others.
- Regular physical activity is good for everyone’s health, and people of all ages and body types can be physically active. Here are just a few benefits of physical activity: (1) Children and adolescents – Physical activity can improve muscular fitness, bone health, and heart health (2) Adults – Physical activity can lower the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. (3) Older adults – Physical activity can lower the risk of falls and improve cognitive skills.
- Look at the rates of food bourn illness in the U.S.A. How many illnesses per year? How many are fatal? What are the organisms responsible for the highest number if illnesses? What are the organisms responsible for the highest number of deaths per year? Which foods seem most "risky"? How do we protect ourselves best???