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5.3: Effective Communication

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    Developing Effective Communication Skills

    Three skills to Effective Communication

    1. Be an active listener

    Actively listening means listening without judging and with an openness to want to understand what you are hearing.

    2. Communicate clearly

    When developing either written or verbal communication it is important to take into consideration your audience, their cultures, and their experiences. Communication takes many skills, it is not just about listening and speaking, but also takes into consideration your thoughts and feelings throughout the exchange and how the setting or type of communication impacts the message. When communicating verbally or through written text it is important to ensure your communication is clear and not too complex or lengthy.

    3. Understand body language

    Non-verbal clues play a large role in the communication process. Non-verbal feedback may be positive such as nodding the head, maintaining eye contact, and leaning in. Non-verbal feedback can also seem to show uninterest such as looking away, turning the body away, or rolling eyes.


    Assertiveness is an honest and appropriate expression of your feelings, thoughts, wants and needs. Acting in an assertive way helps you to stand up for your rights in a respectful manner. It is a way to communicate what you believe, what you want and need, and what is important to you.

    Learning to Be More Assertive

    People often associate the concept of assertiveness with standing up for your rights when you feel that someone has taken advantage of you in a negative way. However, it is also important to recognize that being more assertive can help you to communicate in a positive way in your relationships, which helps to promote mutual respect.

    Assertiveness can help you:

    • speak up when you have a question or concern,
    • say “no” when you don’t want to do something, and
    • express thoughts or feelings

    Communicating assertively does not guarantee that you will get what you want or need. However, you will have the satisfaction of expressing yourself in a positive, self-advocating way. You will probably feel better about yourself and your communication with others. And, you will increase the probability of getting what you need or want, while also respecting the wants or needs of others.

    Aggressive, Assertive, and Non-Assertive Behavior

    Aggressive behavior often means standing up for yourself in ways that violate the rights of others. Aggressive behavior can be demanding, hostile, and blaming.

    Non-Assertive behavior is often submissive, inhibited, passive, and self-denying.

    Assertive behavior involves expressing your wants, needs, thoughts and/or feelings while respecting the rights of others.

    What keeps people from speaking up in an assertive way?

    • Not being clear about what they want and need
    • Fear of displeasing others and of not being liked
    • Not believing they have the right to be assertive
    • Lacking the skills to effectively express themselves

    “I” Statements vs. “You” Statements

    “I” statements can help you focus on and be clear about your own thoughts and feelings, and what it is that you want or need. They may also involve an acknowledgement of the thoughts/feelings/goals of the other person.

    The real focus in “I” statements is on the “I feel,” “I want,” or “I think” part of the statement. Identifying your thoughts, feelings, needs, and wants related to a situation will help you to avoid blaming someone else or getting caught up in the emotion of the moment.

    “You” statements, on the other hand, tend to place blame or criticize the other person. This typically puts the other person on the defensive, and does not encourage open communication.

    For example, saying “I feel worried when you are running late to meet me for dinner and don’t call to let me know” (I statement) vs. “You are always running late, and never bother to let me know” (You statement) will likely result in two very different reactions and conversations! The first statement simply expresses how the person is feeling, whereas the second statement sets a critical and accusatory tone.


    To become more skilled in communicating assertively it is important to practice. You won’t learn how to become a more assertive person just by reading one book or attending one workshop. You can practice with your friends and family. Let them know what you are doing first! Ask for help/feedback on how you’re doing.

    Start Gradually

    In the beginning, don’t try changing your behavior in the most complex or difficult situations. Practice first in the least risky ones.

    Some examples:

    • Returning a purchased item (that you are not satisfied with) to a store for a refund
    • Asking your partner/roommate/kids to help empty the dishwasher or take out the garbage
    • Suggesting a movie that you would like to watch for an upcoming movie night

    If you start small to enhance your chances of success, you will experience how it feels to express yourself assertively and it will be easier to move onto more challenging situations.

    Keep in mind:

    • No one can read your mind– focus on expressing and communicating what is important to you.

    Licenses and Attributions

    Copyrighted material

    • Developing Effective Communication Skills. (2007). Journal of Oncology Practice, 3(6), 314–317. Located at:

    Public Domain Content

    This page titled 5.3: Effective Communication is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Kelly Falcone via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.