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4.12.8: Manganese

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    • Contributed by Jennifer Draper, Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla, & Alan Titchenal
    • Faculty (Food Science and Human Nutrition Program and Human Nutrition Program) at University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

    Manganese is a cofactor for enzymes that are required for carbohydrate and cholesterol metabolism, bone formation, and the synthesis of urea. Those who suffer from liver failure are at greater risk for manganese toxicity because the mineral’s homeostasis is maintained largely by the liver with excretion of excess manganese occurring via bile. Manganese deficiency is uncommon. If a deficiency occurs from elimination from the diet, signs and symptoms include but are not limited to nausea, vomiting, dermatitis, decreased growth of hair and nails, and poor bone formation and skeletal defects.[1]

    Dietary Reference Intake of Manganese

    The recommended intake for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult males and 1.8 mg per day for adult females. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for adults is 11 mg/day.

    Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Dietary Reference Intakes for Manganese

    Age group

    AI (mg/day)

    UL (mg/day)

    Infants (0-6 months)


    Infants (6-12 months)


    Children (1-3 years)



    Children (4-8 years)



    Children (9-13 years)



    Adolescents (14-18 years)

    2.2 (males), 1.6 (females)


    Adults (>18 years)

    2.3 (males), 1.8 (females)


    Source: The National Academies Press (2006). Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. The National Academies of Sciences Engineering Medicine. 350. Dietary Sources of Manganese: The best food sources for manganese are whole grains, nuts, legumes, and green vegetables.

    Query \(\PageIndex{1}\)


    1. Gropper, S. A. S., Smith, J. L., & Carr, T. P. (2018). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ↵
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