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1.1: About This Manual

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    Course Level: This laboratory manual is designed for undergraduate anatomy labs.

    Instructor Access: This manual can be found in the UND repository or obtained directly from Ethan Snow (

    Making this Resource Available to Students: This manual may be downloaded and made available for students to access at no cost to them. This manual may be used electronically (free) or in print (printing costs may apply). This manual is designed as an Open Educational Resource (OER) to eliminate the need for students to purchase costly and excessive resources. Although a traditional anatomy atlas may not be required for the students to purchanse with the manual, the author recommends having a few anatomy atlases in the lab as an available resource for students.

    Examination Set Up Guides: The included examination set-up guides (Appendix B) provide flexibility for choosing examination items wile linking those examination items back to course learning objectives and ensuring the examination material is proportionate to the material in the manual. Learning objectives can be found throughout the manual at the beginning of each lab.

    Images: All copyrighted images used in this manual are under a Creative Commons license that allows them to be used, edited, and distributed in this manual. See Appendix C for details about each image.

    Video Links: In the manual, video links connect students to mini-lectures about respective content. Some videos may need to be accessed to understand and label some figures. Videos are published to YouTube under a Creative Commons license.

    Support: This laboratory manual was created with the support of an Open Educational Resource (OER) Implementation Initiative grant funded by the University of North Dakota Student Senate, Provost, and Vice President of Academic Affairs.

    Author Contact Information: Please contact Ethan Snow with any questions, comments, requests, or concerns. You may contact him by calling 402-870-0976 or by sending email correspondence to

    1.1: About This Manual is shared under a CC BY-NC license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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