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Medicine LibreTexts

18.2: IOC New Definition

In 2005, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) defined the Female Athlete Triad (Triad) as "the combination of disordered eating (DE) and irregular menstrual cycles eventually leading to a decrease in endogenous oestrogen and other hormones, resulting in low bone mineral density "(BMD). Since then, it has become clear that the Triad's etiology is an imbalance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for the daily living activities, growth, and exercise that results in an energy deficiency relative to the balance between energy intake and energy output. The triad is not an interplay of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and low energy availability. Instead, the relative energy deficiency drives the alterations in menstrual function and bone health.  So, the IOC has come forward with a consensus statement to rename the female athlete triad, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).  Here is the first consensus statement published in 2014, and the additions published in 2015.