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13: From Childhood to the Elderly Years

In this Chapter. we continue to explore nutrition through the life cycle, this time looking at childhood to the elderly years.

  • 13.1: Chapter Introduction
    Previosuly, we focused on the effects of dietary choices during pregnancy, infancy, and the toddler years. Our examination of nutrition through the human life cycle continues as we study the remainder of childhood into adulthood and the elderly years. Nutritional choices remain critical throughout a person’s life and influence overall health and wellness. The nutritional choices we make today affect not only our present health, but also our future well-being.
  • 13.2: The Human Life Cycle Continues
    The human body constantly changes throughout the life cycle, from childhood into adulthood and old age. Proper nutrition and physical activity ensure health and wellness at each stage of the human life cycle.
  • 13.3: Childhood and Nutrition
    The recommended intakes of macronutrients and micronutrients for children are higher relative to body size compared with nutrient needs during adulthood. Also, children’s daily energy needs vary depending on their level of physical activity and their gender. Girls ages four to eight require 1,200 to 1,800 calories, while boys ages four to eight need 1,200 to 2,000 calories. Some food- and nutrition-related problems that can affect school-aged children include malnutrition and food allergies.
  • 13.4: Puberty and Nutrition
    The daily energy requirements for preteens differ according to gender, growth, and activity level. Girls ages nine to thirteen should consume 1,400 to 2,200 calories per day, and boys should consume 1,600 to 2,600 calories per day. Nutritional concerns for older children include malnutrition and obesity. Preteens should be encouraged to develop good habits, including consuming a healthy diet and regularly exercising.
  • 13.5: Older Adolescence and Nutrition
    Older adolescents experience numerous physical changes and must increase their energy intake to support these changes and meet nutrient needs. Nutrient needs are greater during adolescence than at any other time in the life cycle, except during pregnancy. The daily energy requirements for ages fourteen to eighteen are 1,800 to 2,400 calories for girls, and 2,000 to 3,200 calories for boys, depending on activity level. Nutritional concerns for older adolescents include eating disorders.
  • 13.6: Young Adulthood and Nutrition
    Young adults typically have reached their physical peak and can support health and wellness with adequate nutrition and exercise. For ages nineteen to thirty, the daily energy requirements are 1,800 to 2,400 calories for women and 2,400 to 3,000 calories for men, depending on activity level. Nutritional concerns for young adults include adequate energy and fluid intake, sodium intake, and the consumption of fiber. Young adults should avoid consuming solid fats, added sugars, and excess alcohol.
  • 13.7: Middle Age and Nutrition
    Middle-aged adults begin to experience signs of aging and must continue to support their health and wellness with nutrition and exercise. The daily energy requirements for ages thirty-one to fifty are 1,800 to 2,200 calories for women and 2,200 to 3,000 calories for men, depending on activity level. Nutritional concerns for middle-aged adults relate to menopause and the prevention of chronic disease.
  • 13.8: Old Age and Nutrition
    As adults age, physical changes impact nutrient needs and can result in deficiencies. The daily energy requirements for adults ages fifty-one and over are 1,600 to 2,200 calories for women and 2,000 to 2,800 calories for men, depending on activity level. Older adults are more susceptible to medical problems, such as disability and disease, which can impact appetite, the ability to plan and prepare food, chewing and swallowing, self-feeding, and general nutrient intake.
  • 13.E: From Childhood to the Elderly Years (Exercises)