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Medicine LibreTexts

12.01: Objectives

After completing this section, you should know:

  • the parts of the urinary system
  • the structure and function of a kidney
  • the structure and function of a kidney tubule or nephron
  • the processes of filtration, reabsorption, secretion and concentration that convert blood to urine in the kidney tubule
  • the function of antidiuretic hormone in producing concentrated urine
  • the composition, storage and voiding of normal urine
  • abnormal constituents of urine and their significance
  • the functions of the kidney in excreting nitrogenous waste, controlling water levels and regulating salt concentrations and acid-base balance
  • that birds do not have a bladder


  • Ruth Lawson (Otago Polytechnic; Dunedin, New Zealand)