Triglycerides are the most common lipid in our bodies and in the foods we consume. Fatty acids are not typically found free in nature, instead they are found in triglycerides. Breaking down the name triglyceride tells a lot about their structure. "Tri" refers to the three fatty acids, "glyceride" refers to the glycerol backbone that the three fatty acids are bonded to. Thus, a monoglyceride contains one fatty acid, a diglyceride contains two fatty acids. Triglycerides perform the following functions in our bodies:
Primary form of energy storage in the body
Insulate and protect
Aid in the absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins.
A triglyceride is formed by three fatty acids being bonded to glycerol as shown below.
Figure 2.351 Triglyceride formation
When a fatty acid is added to the glycerol backbone, this process is called esterification. This process is so named, because it forms an ester bond between each fatty acid and the glycerol. Three molecules of water are also formed during this process as shown below.
Figure 2.352 Esterification of three fatty acids to glycerol
A stereospecific numbering (sn) system is used to number the three fatty acids in a triglyceride sn-1, sn-2, and sn-3 respectively. A triglyceride can also be simply represented as a polar (hydrophilic) head, with 3 nonpolar (hydrophobic) tails, as shown below.
Figure 2.353 Stereospecific numbering (sn) of triglycerides
The three fatty acids in a triglyceride can be the same or can each be a different fatty acid. A triglyceride containing different fatty acids is known as a mixed triglyceride. An example of a mixed triglyceride is shown below.
Figure 2.354 Structure of a mixed triglyceride