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7.4A: Metabolic Conditions - Fasting

  • Page ID
    1505
  • [ "article:topic", "Fasting", "authorname:blindshield" ]

    In this condition a person has been fasting for an extended period of time (18 hours or longer). As a result, the person is in a catabolic state with low blood glucose levels, which leads the pancreas to secrete glucagon.

    The liver will break down glycogen to secrete glucose for other tissues to use until its stores are exhausted. Amino acids and lactate from muscle will be used for gluconeogenesis to synthesize glucose that will also be secreted. Glycolysis will not be occurring to any great extent to spare glucose for use by other tissues. From the breakdown of amino acids, there will be an increase in the synthesis and secretion of urea from the liver to safely rid the body of ammonia from the amino acids. Fatty acids that are received from the adipose will be broken down to acetyl-CoA and used to synthesize ketone bodies that are secreted for tissues, such as the brain, that cannot directly use fatty acids as a fuel.

    The muscle will break down glycogen to glucose until glycogen stores are exhausted, and receive glucose from the liver that enters glycolysis, forming pyruvate. Glucose will be used for anaerobic (lactate) and aerobic (pyruvate) respiration. Pyruvate will enter the transition reaction to form acetyl-CoA. The acetyl-CoA will then enter the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2 produced will enter the electron transport chain to generate ATP. Once there isn’t enough glucose for the muscle to use, fatty acids taken up from the adipose and from breakdown of muscle triglyceride stores will be broken down to acetyl-CoA. The acetyl-CoA will then enter the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2 produced will enter the electron transport chain to generate ATP. Amino acids from protein breakdown and lactate (Cori Cycle) will be secreted to be used by the liver for gluconeogenesis.

    The adipose tissue will break down triglycerides to fatty acids and release these for use by the muscle and the liver. It will not be taking up anything.