7.3D: Vitamin B₅ (Pantothenic acid)
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Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoic acid and β-alanine. Its name derives from the Greek pantothen, meaning "from everywhere", and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in fortified whole-grain cereals, egg yolks, liver and dried mushrooms. It is commonly found as its alcohol analog, the provitamin panthenol (pantothenol), and as calcium pantothenate.
Skeletal formula of (R)-pantothenic acid
Content of pantothenic acid varies among manufactured and natural foods, especially fortified ready-to-eat cereals, infant formulas, energy bars and dried foods. Major food sources of pantothenic acid are dried mushrooms, liver, dried egg yolks and sunflower seeds. Whole grains are another good source of the vitamin, but milling removes much of the pantothenic acid, as it is found in the outer layers of whole grains. In animal feeds, the most important sources are alfalfa, cereal, fish meal, peanut meal, molasses, mushrooms, rice, wheat bran, and yeasts.
Dietary Reference Intake
The Food and Nutrition Board of the U.S. Institute of Medicine updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for B vitamins in 1998. At that time there was not sufficient information to establish EARs and RDAs for pantothenic acid. In instances such as this, the Board sets Adequate Intakes (AIs), with the understanding that at some later date, AIs will be replaced by more exact information. As for safety, the FNB sets Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (known as ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of pantothenic acid there is no UL, as there is insufficient human data to identify adverse effects from high doses. The European Food Safety Authority reviewed the same safety question and also reached the conclusion that there was not sufficient evidence to set a UL for pantothenic acid. Collectively the EARs, RDAs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes.
For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). For pantothenic acid labeling purposes 100% of the Daily Value was 10 mg, but as of May 2016 it has been revised to 5 mg. Food and supplement companies have until July 2018 to comply with the change.
|Age group||Age||Adequate intake|
|Infants||0–6 months||1.7 mg|
|Infants||7–12 months||1.8 mg|
|Children||1–3 years||2 mg|
|Children||4–8 years||3 mg|
|Children||9–13 years||4 mg|
|Adult men and women||14+ years||5 mg|
|Pregnant women||(vs. 5)||6 mg|
|Breastfeeding women||(vs. 5)||7 mg|
Toxicity of pantothenic acid is unlikely. In fact, no Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL) has been established for the vitamin. Large doses of the vitamin, when ingested, have no reported side effects and massive doses (e.g., 10 g/day) may only yield mild intestinal distress, and diarrhea at worst. It has been suggested, however, that high doses of pantothenic acid might worsen panic attacks in those with panic disorder by prolonging the duration until adrenal exhaustion. Pantothenic acid, at a human equivalent dose within the range of common supplementation, was shown to induce adrenal hyper-responsiveness to stress stimulation. There are also no adverse reactions known following parenteral (injected) or topical (skin) applications of the vitamin.
When found in foods, most pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or acyl carrier protein (ACP). For the intestinal cells to absorb this vitamin, it must be converted into free pantothenic acid. Within the lumen of the intestine, CoA and ACP are hydrolyzed into 4'-phosphopantetheine. The 4'-phosphopantetheine is then dephosphorylated into pantetheine. Pantetheinase, an intestinal enzyme, then hydrolyzes pantetheine into free pantothenic acid. Free pantothenic acid is absorbed into intestinal cells via a saturable, sodium-dependent active transport system. At high levels of intake, when this mechanism is saturated, some pantothenic acid may also be absorbed via passive diffusion. As intake increases 10-fold, however, absorption rate decreases to 10%.
Pantothenic acid deficiency is exceptionally rare and has not been thoroughly studied. In the few cases where deficiency has been seen (victims of starvation and limited volunteer trials), nearly all symptoms can be reversed with the return of pantothenic acid. Symptoms of deficiency are similar to other vitamin B deficiencies. There is impaired energy production, due to low CoA levels, which could cause symptoms of irritability, fatigue, and apathy.Acetylcholine synthesis is also impaired; therefore, neurological symptoms can also appear in deficiency; they include numbness, paresthesia, and muscle cramps. Deficiency in pantothenic acid can also cause hypoglycemia, or an increased sensitivity to insulin. Insulin receptors are acylated with palmitic acid when they do not want to bind with insulin. Therefore, more insulin will bind to receptors when acylation decreases, causing hypoglycemia. Additional symptoms could include restlessness, malaise, sleep disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. In a few rare circumstances, more serious (but reversible) conditions have been seen, such as adrenal insufficiency and hepatic encephalopathy.
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