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Glossary

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    Glossary Entries
    Word(s) Definition Exclusion Image Caption Link Source Source License Source URL
    Absorption, absorb, absorbed Absorption from the enterocyte into circulation.              
    Alcohol From a nutrition perspective traditionally refers to ethanol, which is present in alcoholic beverages. But also a carbon containing compound that includes at least one hydroxyl (-OH) group.              
    Anonymity An anonymous state.              
    Baseline The start of a study.              
    Beta-carotene An orange provitamin A carotenoid.              
    Bias Systemic error. Can be selection, misclassification, and/or recall bias.             Adapted from: https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Bioavailability, bioavailable The ability to be absorbed and used by the body.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/bioavailable
    Blind, blinding The process of obscuring the intervention from either subjects or researchers during a clinical trial/human intervention study.              
    Biosafety cabinet Equipment that can be used to work with cells in a sterile environment.              
    Bomb calorimeter An instrument that measured the energy given off from and item, thereby determining the kilocalories it provides.              
    Calorie, calories As most commonly used actually refers to a kilocalorie, or the energy content of food.              
    Carbohydrate, carbohydrates Macronutrient that provides 4 kilocalories/gram. Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.              
    Cardiovascular disease, CVD A type of disease that affects the heart or blood vessels. The risk of certain cardiovascular diseases may be increased by smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, and obesity. The most common cardiovascular disease is coronary artery disease (narrow or blocked coronary arteries), which can lead to chest pain, heart attacks, or stroke. Other cardiovascular diseases include congestive heart failure, heart rhythm problems, congenital heart disease (heart disease at birth), and endocarditis (inflamed inner layer of the heart). Also called heart disease.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...scular-disease
    Carotenoid, carotenoids 40 carbon phytochemical or zoochemical compounds. Some are provitamin A. Animals do not synthesize.              
    Case-control study An observational study that begins by selecting cases (people with the disease) and then controls from the same target population. Retrospectively then they are asked about the exposures.             Adapted from: https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Causality Cause and effect; an exposure or intervention causes an effect.              
    Cell culture The growing of cells for normally for research purposes.              
    Cholesterol Noncaloric lipid from the sterol family. Some hormones are made from it.              
    Chronic disease, chronic diseases, !Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes, !Chronic A disease or condition that usually lasts for 3 months or longer and may get worse over time. Chronic diseases tend to occur in older adults and can usually be controlled but not cured. The most common types of chronic disease are cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...hronic-disease
    Cis A double bond where the hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond.              
    Clinical trial, clinical trials A prospective intervention study.              
    Cohort, cohorts, !cohort study  A group of people.              
    Complex carbohydrate, complex carbohydrates 3 or more sugars bonded together. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.              
    Concentration, concentrations Quantitative measure of the relative amounts of solute and solvent in a solution.             https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...20%3A_Glossary
    Confidence interval, confidence intervals A confidence interval is a range of scores likely to contain the parameter being estimated. Intervals can be constructed to be more or less likely to contain the parameter: 95% of 95% confidence intervals contain the estimated parameter whereas 99% of 99% confidence intervals contain the estimated parameter. The wider the confidence interval, the more uncertainty there is about the value of the parameter.             https://stats.libretexts.org/Bookshe...02%3A_Glossary
    Control, controls A comparator in a study. Might receive a placebo or no intervention.              
    Cross-sectional study, cross sectional studies An observational study design in which one takes sample from a target population and assess their exposure and disease risk at the same time.              
    Digestion The process of breaking down food into substances the body can use for energy, tissue growth, and repair.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/digestion
    Disaccharide, disaccharides Two monosaccharides bonded together. Sucrose, lactose and maltose.              
    Disseminate, disseminated To communicate, to make widely known.              
    Double-blind A study design where neither the researcher nor the subject know what intervention the subject is receiving.              
    Ecologic fallacy A logical error that stems from applying group-level characteristics to individuals.             https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Epidemiology, epidemiologic, epidemiological The study of the distribution and determinants of disease or other health-related events in human populations, and the application of that study to prevent and control health problems.             https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Food frequency questionnaire An instrument that contains a number of questions designed to determine how frequently foods are consumed.              
    Functional food, functional foods A food, or a food ingredient, which may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients (macronutrients and micronutrients) it contains.              
    Gold standard The best that is currently available. Not necessarily the most feasible.             https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Hazard ratio, hazard ratios A measure of association, similar to odds ratio and relative risk.              
    Hypothesis, hypotheses An educated guess about what is expected.              
    Incubator A chamber that mimics the bodies conditions where cells can be maintained.              
    In vitro Typically refers to research done in cells.              
    In vivo In the living. Both humans and animals.              
    Lipid, lipids Fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.              
    Lycopene A red, nonprovitamin A carotenoid.              
    Journal article, journal articles See peer-reviewed journal article.              
    Kilocalorie, kilocalories Amount of energy needed to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius.              
    Macronutrient, macronutrients A nutrient needed in larger amounts.              
    Media Solution that provides nutrients to cells that they would normally receive through blood.              
    Meta-analysis, meta-analyses A statistical technique that analyzes results from previous studies collectively.              
    Metabolism, !One-carbon metabolism, !1-carbon metabolism The chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism. These changes make energy and the materials cells and organisms need to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. Metabolism also helps get rid of toxic substances.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/metabolism
    Micronutrient, micronutrients A nutrient needed in smaller amounts.              
    Microorganism, microorganisms An organism that can be seen only through a microscope. Microorganisms include bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi. Although viruses are not considered living organisms, they are sometimes classified as microorganisms.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../microorganism
    Mineral, minerals, !macromineral, !trace mineral, !ultratrace mineral Elements that are essential for normal physiological processes in the body.              
    Monosaccharide, monosaccharides A single sugar unit carbohydrate. Glucose, fructose or maltose.              
    Nutrition The science of the action of food, beverages, and their components in biological systems.              
    Nutrient, nutrients A compound that provides a needed function in the body              
    Odds ratio, odds ratios A measure of association, used in study designed that deal with prevalent cases of disease (case-control, cross-sectional). Similar to relative risk and hazard ratio.             Adapted from: https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Oligosaccharide, oligosaccharides 3-10 monosaccharides bonded together. Have alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds that are not digested.              
    Open-Label A study design without blinding, because both the subject and researcher no what intervention the subject is receiving.              
    Osteoporosis A condition in which there is a decrease in the amount and thickness of bone tissue. This causes the bones to become weak and break more easily. Osteoporosis may be caused by older age, hormone changes, taking certain medicines, and not eating enough foods with calcium and vitamin D. It may also be caused by certain types of cancer and cancer treatment. It is most common in white and Asian women.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/osteoporosis
    Paradox A seemingly contradictory relationship.              
    Peer reviewer An expert selected by a journal to review a submitted manuscript.              
    Peer-reviewed journals, peer-reviewed journal Journals that publish research articles that have been peer reviewed and believed to merit publication.              
    Physiology Study of the functioning of the human organism.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Phytochemical, phytochemicals Non-nutritive plant compounds that may provide health benefits beyond traditional nutrients.              
    Placebo, placebos A inert pill or treatment that serves as the control comparison to an active intervention.              
    Placebo effect The positive effect that can occur from a subject's belief that they are receiving a treatment that is going to improve their condition, even if they are not receiving an active intervention.              
    Polysaccharide, polysaccharides More than 10 monosaccharides bonded together.               
    Prospective cohort study, cohort study An observational study following a select "cohort" of people, assessing their exposure status, and then following them over time looking for incident cases of disease.             Adapted from : https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Protein, proteins Macronutrient that provides 4 kilocalories/gram. Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.              
    p-value, p-values A statistical value used to determine statistical significance, if the value is less than 0.05 (p<0.05). Lower the value the greater the significance, and less likely is not a true difference.              
    Provitamin A A precursor that can be cleaved to retinal (vitamin A). Used to describe certain carotenoids.              
    Randomization, randomized The process of randomly assigning subjects to groups to decrease bias.              
    Reductionist approach An approach that seeks to reduce food down to its components so that those potential beneficial components can be consumed individually.              
    Relative risk, relative risks A measure of association calculated for studies that observe incident cases of disease (cohort, or clinical trials). Similar to relative risk and hazard ratio.             Adapted from: https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...20%3A_Glossary
    Risk, !relative risk, !Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes In epidemiology is the change is risk relative exposure or not exposure.              
    Saturated Having no double bonds. Completely saturated with hydrogen.              
    Saturated fat, saturate fats A fatty acids that is fully saturated, with not double bonds.              
    Scientific method Procedure of formulating a research question and associated hypothesis, which is then test through an experienced to determine whether the results support the hypothesis.              
    Secondary outcome, secondary outcomes Outcomes that were not the primary ones that the study was designed to assess, secondary in nature.              
    Significant, significantly Used in research/science communication to indicate statistical significance.              
    Simple carbohydrate, simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides and disaccharides (2 or less sugars).              
    Single-agent A single compound.              
    Single-blind A study design where only the researcher knows what intervention the subject is receiving, the subject does not.              
    Statistical significance, statistically significant Often indicated by p<0.05 or through 95% confidence intervals.              
    Systematic literature review, systematic literature reviews A systematic process through which a literature review is conducted to answer a specific question.              
    Trans bond A double bond where the hydrogens are on opposite sides of the double bond.              
    Trans fat An unsaturated fatty acid that has at least 1 double bond in the trans configuration.              
    Unsaturated Having at least 1 double bond. Not completely saturated with hydrogen.              
    Vitamin, vitamins Organic compounds that are essential for normal physiologic processes in the body.              
    Water Noncaloric macronutrient, hydrogen dioxide.              
    Zoomchemical, zoochemicals Non-nutritive animal compounds that may provide health benefits beyond traditional nutrients.              
    Glucose, glucoses, !glucose-6-phosphate, !glucose-1-phosphate Monosaccharide produced by photosynthesis, major source of energy in body.              
    Galactose, galactoses Monosaccharide similar in structure in glucose, but not normally found alone in nature.              
    Fructose, fructoses 5-member ring, sweetest of the monosaccharides.              
    Maltose, maltoses Disaccharide of glucose + glucose by alpha bond, most commonly found in alcoholic beverage and barley.              
    Sucrose, sucroses Disaccharide of glucose + fructose by alpha bond, table sugar.              
    Lactose, lactoses, !Lactose intolerance, !lactose intolerant Disaccharide of galactose + glucose by beta bond, primary milk sugar.              
    High-fructose corn syrup Refined sweetener product that provides either 42% or 55% free fructose with the rest being free glucose.              
    Glycosidic bond, glycosidic bonds A bond between glycosides (aka monosaccharides, sugars).              
    Alpha-bond, alpha-bonds A bond formed when both carbons have the same stereochemistry, generally digestive enzymes cleave these             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycosidic_bond
    Beta-bond, beta-bonds A bond formed when both carbons have the different stereochemistry, generally digestive enzymes do not cleave these.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycosidic_bond
    Alpha 1-4 bonds, alpha 1-4 bond An alpha bond between the carbon 1 in the first monosaccharide and carbon 4 of the second monosaccharide. Readily cleaved by digestive enzymes.               
    Alpha 1-6 bonds, alpha 1-6 bond An alpha bond between the carbon 1 in the first monosaccharide and carbon 6 of the second monosaccharide. Not cleaved by digestive enzymes, fermented by microorganisms in colon.              
    Sugar alcohol, polyol, sugar replacer, sugar alcohols, polyols An organic compound containing multiple alcohol or hydroxyl groups (-OH). Less sweet than caloric sweeteners, but are not fermented by microorganisms. Also known as polyols and sugar replacers.              
    Ferment, ferments, fermented In microorganisms, anaerobic breakdown of organic nutrients.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation
    Fermentation Biochemically used to describe the anaerobic production of ATP from carbohydrates.               
    Anaerobic Without oxygen.             https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...20%3A_Glossary
    Organic A natural or synthetic compounds that contains carbon.              
    Tagatose An alternative sweetener that is similar in structure and function to sugar alcohols except is also contains a ketone group.               
    Ketone, ketones, !ketone body, !ketone bodies The functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms, or a chemical compound that contains a carbonyl group.              https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Organi...try/Glossary#S
    Saccharin Older artificial sweetener that triggers both sweet and bitter taste receptors.              
    Aspartame Sweetener that breaks down to the amino acids phenylalanine and aspartate and is not heat stable (loses its sweetness). Products containing need Phenylketonuria warning label.              
    Neotame Similar in structure to aspartame and advantame. Sweeter than aspartame, heat-stable and is not a concern for Phenylketonuria. But lower acceptable daily intake than advantame.              
    Hydroxyl, hydroxyls –OH. Composed of oxygen and hydrogen.              
    Stereochemistry, stereochemical The spatial arrangement atoms that form a structure.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereochemistry
    Advantame Similar in structure to aspartame and neotame. Sweeter than aspartame, heat-stable and is not a concern for Phenylketonuria. Higher acceptable daily intake than neotame.              
    Acesulfame-Potassium (K) Potassium containing, heat-stable alternative sweetener.              
    Sucralose Alternative sweetener similar in structure to sucrose except Chlorine (Cl) replaces the hydroxyl (–OH) groups.              
    Stevia Sweetener derive from South American shrub. Sweetness provided by steviol glycosides. Heat-stable.              
    Luo Han Guo Fruit Extracts Sweetener derived from Chinese fruit. Sweetness provide by mogrosides. Heat-stable. Also known as monk fruit extract.              
    Starch, starches Polysaccharide of glucose bonded by alpha bonds as either amylose or amylopectin. Plant storage of glucose.              
    Glycogen Branched polysaccharide of glucose bonded by alpha bonds. Animal storage of glucose. More branched than amylopectin.              
    Fiber, fibers Branched polysaccharide of glucose bonded by beta bonds.              
    Amylose Linear polysaccharide form of starch. All bonds are alpha 1-4 bonds.              
    Amylopectin Branched polysaccharide for of starch with alpha 1-4 bond except at branch points where it contains 1-6 bonds.              
    Dietary Fiber, dietary fibers Nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants.              
    Lignin, lignins A nondigestible polymer.              
    Functional Fiber, functional fibers Isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans.              
    Total Fiber, total fibers Dietary fiber + functional fiber.              
    Nonfermentable, nonviscous fiber  Fiber characterized by not being fermented in the colon and not becoming gelatinous in nature in water.              
    Fermentable, viscous fiber Fiber characterized by being fermented in the colon and for becoming gelatinous in nature in water.              
    Transit time The amount of time it takes for food to go from the oral cavity through the gastrointestinal tract to the anus.              
    Bile A basic secretion produced by the liver, commonly concentrated in the gallbladder, which helps break down lipids into small droplets because of its emulsifying properties.              
    Bile acid, bile acids Synthesized from cholesterol, are good emulsifiers in bile given their amphipathic nature.              
    Amphipathic Having both hydrophilic, and hydrophobic properties.              
    Hydrophilic Water loving nature.               
    Hydrophobic Water fearing nature.               
    Emulsifier, emulsifiers Amphipathic structure allows it interact with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances.              
    Amino acid, amino acids Made up of an amino group, a carboxylic acid, and a side group that varies between them all. Are bonded together to form peptides and proteins.              
    Peptide bond, peptide bonds A bond between 2 amino acids.              
    Dipeptide, dipeptides 2 amino acids bonded together.              
    Tripeptide, tripeptides 3 amino acids bonded together.              
    Oligopeptide, oligopeptides Medium size peptide, no formal definition unlike oligosaccharide.              
    Polypeptide, polypeptides Large chain of polypeptides bonded together.              
    Beta-pleated sheet, beta-pleated sheets A type of secondary structure that forms sheets of molecules.              
    Alpha-helix, alpha-helices A type of secondary structure that forms a helix shape.              
    Hemoglobin Contains heme iron, binds oxygen and carries it through circulation. Is an example of quaternary structure, because it contains multiple polypeptide chains in its structure.              
    Enzyme, enzymes Protein that speeds up biochemical reactions; biological catalyst. Often end in –ase.              Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Substrate, substrates A substance on which an enzyme acts.              https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...Glossary/Q,R,S
    Active site, active sites The location within an enzyme where biochemical reactions occur. Also known as the catalytic site.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Hormone, hormones, !Nuclear hormone receptor, !Steroid hormone, !Hormone response element A chemical messenger molecule secreted by a gland of the endocrine system into the blood.              https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Endocrine A system of glands that release their hormones into the blood.               
    Insulin Endocrine hormone secreted by beta cells of the pancreas that normally helps cells take up glucose from the blood, thereby decreasing the blood glucose concentrations.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Plasma  Straw-yellow fluid part of blood that contains many dissolved substances and blood cells.              https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Serum  Plasma minus its clotting proteins.              https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...Glossary/Q,R,S
    Interstitial fluid  Extracellular fluid surrounding the cells.              https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/E-F
    Extracellular fluid Fluid outside body cells.              https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/E-F
    Buffer A weak acid or a weak base; the pH of a buffer resists change when small amounts of acid or base are added             Adapted from: https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...20%3A_Glossary
    Transport proteins, transport protein Protein that transport substances through circulation.              
    Transporter, transporters Protein in a cell membrane that helps other substances cross the membrane to enter or leave the cell.              https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Antibody, antibodies Proteins made in response to a stimulating molecule called an antigen. The basis for the immune response.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/A-B
    Antigen, antigens A substance that stimulates the body to produce an antibody.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/A-B
    Neurotransmitter, neurotransmitters Type of chemical that carries nerve impulses from the axon of a neuron to another cell across the synapse.              https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Essential amino acid, essential amino acids An amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the body and thus needs to be consumed. Also known as indispensable amino acids.               
    Nonessential amino acid, nonessential amino acids An amino acid that can be synthesized by the body in adequate amounts so that it does not need to be consumed. Also known as dispensable amino acids.              
    Conditionally essential amino acid, conditionally essential amino acids An amino acid that under certain conditions becomes essential and needs to be consumed.               
    Phenylketonuria, PKU A condition where a mutation in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase prevents the normal conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Tyrosine is conditionally essential, but phenylalanine and its metabolites can build up can cause adverse brain effects. Needs to limit protein and aspartame intake.              
    Branch chain amino acids, BCAAs, BCAA, branched chain amino acid, branch chain amino acid Valine, leucine, and isoleucine, which have branched side chains in their structures.              
    Complete protein, complete proteins A protein that provides adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids.              
    Incomplete protein, incomplete proteins A protein that provides inadequate amounts of one or more of the essential amino acids.              
    Limiting amino acid, limiting amino acids An essential amino acid that is found in inadequate amounts in an incomplete protein. The amino acid limits it from being complete.              
    Complementary proteins, complementary protein Two incomplete proteins that contain differing limiting amino acids such that consuming them in combination the complement one another by supplying the amino acids in in adequate amounts in the other.              
    Protein quality An indication of the quality based off how well it contributes or supports protein use in the body, its amino acid composition, and/or amino acid digestibility.              
    Biological value (Grams of nitrogen retained / grams of nitrogen absorbed) x 100              
    Protein efficiency ratio, PER Grams of weight gained / grams of protein consumed. This method is commonly performed in growing rats.              
    Amino acid score, AAS Test food limiting essential amino acid (mg/g protein) / needs of same essential amino acid (mg/g protein).               
    Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, PDCAAS Amino Acid Score x Digestibility              
    Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score, DIAAS 100 x (mg of digestible dietary indispensable amino acid in 1g of dietary protein / mg of the same dietary indispensable amino acid in 1g of the reference protein).              
    Ileal digestibility Digestion that occurs by the end of the ileum.              
    Truncate, truncated To cap, or not allow to exceed.              
    Protein-energy malnutrition, PEM A condition of inadequate protein intake that can also occur with and without inadequate caloric (energy) intake.              
    Kwashiorkor Condition that results from inadequate protein intake, but adequate energy intake. Characteristic symptom is a swollen abdomen.              
    Marasmus Condition that results from inadequate protein and energy intake. Results in a skin and bones appearance.              
    Lipoprotein, lipoproteins Complexes of lipids and proteins that carry lipids through circulation.              
    Fat, fats Chemist perspective are solid at room temperature. From a caloric perspective triglycerides, fatty acids and phospholipids that provide 9 kcal/g.              
    Oil, oils Chemist perspective liquid at room temperature. From a caloric perspective, oils are fats.              
    Room temperature Normal room temperature is around 70?F, around 21?C.              
    Fatty acid, fatty acids Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with methyl (omega) end and an acid (alpha) end.              
    Steric hindrance  Congestion caused by the physical presence of surrounding atoms in a molecule.              Adapted from: https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...eric_Hindrance
    Short-chain fatty acid, SCFA, short-chain fatty acids A fatty acid containing less than 6 carbons.              
    Medium-chain fatty acid, MCFA, medium-chain fatty acids A fatty acid containing 6 to 12 carbons.              
    Long-chain fatty acid, LCFA, long-chain fatty acids A fatty acid with greater than 12 carbons.              
    Melting point, melting points The temperature at which a substance changes state from a solid to a liquid.              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossa...mistry_terms#P
    Monounsaturated fatty acid, MUFA A fatty acids containing one or more double bond.              
    Polyunsaturated fatty acid, PUFA A fatty acid contain two or more double bonds.              
    Partially hydrogenated, partially hydrogenate Not completing hydrogenating, which would completely saturate all compounds. In the case of unsaturated fatty acids, creates some trans fatty acids.              
    Hydrogenation, hydrogenate Addition of hydrogen (H2) to reduce a compound.              https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...20%3A_Glossary
    Oxidation, oxidize, oxidized, !beta-oxidation, !fatty acid oxidation, !alcohol oxidation Loss of electrons. Also can be from gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen.              
    Reduction, reduce, reduced, !Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes Gaining of electrons. Also can be from losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen.              
    Rancid Oxidation of fats resulting in objectionable flavor and/or smell.              
    Delta nomenclature  Used to name fatty acids, counts carbons starting at the acid (alpha) end.              
    Omega nomenclature Used to name fatty acids, counts carbons starting at the methyl (omega) end.              
    Carboxylic acid, carboxylic acids A functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O and that carbon also containing a terminal hydroxyl (-OH) groups (-COOH).              
    Methyl, methyls One carbon molecule with only hydrogens bonded to it beyond any carbon-carbon bonds. If only 1 bond -CH3.              
    Ion, ions A molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons from its neutral state and therefore possesses a negative or positive electric charge.              
    Linoleic acid An essential 18-carbon omega-6 fatty acid with 2 double bonds (18:2 n-6).              
    Alpha-linolenic acid An essential 18-carbon omega-3 fatty acid with 3 double bonds (18:3 n-3).              
    Desaturate, desaturated To add a double bond.              
    Eicosanoid, eicosanoids 20 carbon fatty acids derivatives that are biologically active locally.              
    Local Act where, or close, to where they are produced.              
    Inflammation Immune response that establishes a physical barrier against the spread of infection and repairs tissue damage while causing redness, swelling, and warmth.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Inflammatory Causing inflammation.              
    Inhibition, inhibit, inhibits To prevent or impede.              
    Triglyceride, triglycerides Glycerol backbone with 3 ester-bonded fatty acids.              
    Esterification, esterified, !re-esterification Creating ester bonds.              
    Ester bond, ester bonds A bond where least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-carbon group.               Adapted from: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Organi...stry/Glossary#
    Stereospecific numbering System for numbering based of molecule position.              
    Mixed triglyceride, mixed triglycerides Triglyceride containing at least 2 different fatty acids.              
    Phospholipid, phospholipids Glycerol backbone with 2 ester-bonded fatty acids and a nitrogen containing compound bonded to it. Amphipathic in nature.              
    Phosphatidylcholine, lecithin Best known phospholipid, contains a choline off the phosphate group in its head.              
    Lipid bilayer, lipid bilayers Double layer of phospholipid molecules that makes up a plasma membrane of cells.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Micelle, micelles, !mixed micelle Tiny spheres that contain phospholipids where the hydrophilic heads are on the exterior near the water environment and hydrophobic tails are on the interior. Other hydrophobic compounds can also be in the interior.              
    Neurological Have to do with the nerves or nervous system.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/neurologic
    Sterol, sterols Type of lipid with a characteristic 4 ring structure. Does not provide calories unlike other lipids.              
    Cholesterol ester, cholesterol esters Cholesterol is a fatty acid ester bonded to it.              
    Gastrointestinal tract, GI tract, gastrointestinal tracts Organs of the digestive system through which food passes during digestion, including the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestines, rectum and anus.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Organ, organs Structure composed of more than one type of tissue that performs a particular function, such as the brain, kidney, or heart             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Digestive system Gastrointestinal tract plus the digestion accessory organs.              
    Digestion accessory organs, digestion accessory organ Assist in digestion, but do not come into contact with digestive processes like organs in the gastrointestinal tract. Salivary glands, pancreas, gallbladder, and liver.              
    Mouth An opening in the face and is the first part of the gastrointestinal tract. It is the place where food is chewed. Has teeth to help chew/masticate food.             https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouth
    Pharynx Tubular organ that connects the mouth and nasal cavity with the larynx and through which air and food pass             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Esophagus Long, narrow, tube-like digestive organ through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Stomach Sac-like organ of the digestive system between the esophagus and small intestine in which both mechanical and chemical digestion take place             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Small Intestine Long, narrow, tube-like organ of the digestive system where most chemical digestion of food and virtually all absorption of nutrients take place             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Large Intestine Organ of the digestive system that removes water and salts from food waste and forms solid feces for elimination.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Rectum Short part of the large intestine between the colon and anus where feces is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Anus Final part of the large intestine with an opening to the outside for feces to pass through.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Salivary gland, salivary glands One of many exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva into the mouth through ducts.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Saliva Fluid secreted by salivary glands that keeps the mouth moist and contains the digestive enzymes salivary amylase and lingual lipase.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Pancreas Dual endocrine and exocrine gland near the stomach that secretes insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood glucose, as well as enzymes that aid in digestion.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Gallbladder Sac-like organ that stores bile from the liver and secretes it into the duodenum of the small intestine as needed for digestion.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Liver Organ of digestion and excretion that secretes bile for lipid digestion and breaks down excess amino acids and toxins in the blood.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Colon Main part of the large intestine between the small intestine and rectum where water and salts are removed from liquid food wastes to form feces             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Mastication Chewing and grinding of food into smaller pieces.              
    Salivary amylase Digestive enzyme released from the salivary glands that cleaves alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates. Accounts for a minor amount of carbohydrate digestion.              
    Lingual lipase Digestive enzyme released from the salivary glands the preferentially cleaves short-chain fatty acids in the sn-3 position of triglycerides. Believe to be more important in infants.              
    Lysozyme A non-digestive enzyme that breaks down bacteria cell walls to prevent a possible infection.              
    Bolus Ball of masticated food and saliva.              
    Throat Cavity that includes the pharynx and larynx, epiglottis and trachea.              
    Epiglottis The cartilage on the top of the larynx that closes the windpipe during swallowing.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/E-F
    Trachea Tubular organ of the respiratory system that carries air between the larynx and bronchi; also called windpipe.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Larynx Organ of the respiratory system between the pharynx and trachea that is also called the voice box because it contains the vocal cords that allow the production of vocal sounds             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Lungs, lung One of two paired organs of the respiratory system in which gas exchange takes place between the blood and the atmosphere.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Sphincter, sphincters Ring of muscles that can contract to close off an opening between structures, such as between the esophagus and stomach.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Peristalsis Rapid, involuntary, wave-like contractions of smooth muscles that push food through the gastrointestinal tract and urine through the urinary tract.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Endoscopy A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine the inside of the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/endoscopy
    Lower esophageal sphincter, LES Sphincter separating the stomach from the esophagus.              
    pH Scale that is used to measure acidity, on which 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Gastric Of or relating to the stomach.              
    Acid reflux, heart burn  A burning sensation cause by gastric fluid refluxing back up the esophagus through a leaky lower esophageal sphincter. Also known as heartburn.              
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD A condition where a person experiences heartburn or acid reflux more than twice per week and it is severe.              
    Reflux The backward flow of liquid from the stomach into the esophagus.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/reflux
    Chyme Thick, semi-liquid mixture that food in the gastrointestinal tract becomes by the time it leaves the stomach.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Mucosa The moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities (such as the nose, mouth, lungs, and stomach). Glands in the mucosa make mucus (a thick, slippery fluid). Also called mucous membrane.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/mucosa
    Mucus Slimy substance produced by mucous membranes that traps pathogens, particles, and debris.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Gastric pit, gastric pits Indentations in the stomach's surface that are lined by four different types of cells.              
    Neck cells, neck cell Cells at the top of the gastric pit that produce mucus.              
    Chief cells, chief cell Cells at the middle of the gastric pit that produce pepsinogen and gastric lipase.              
    Parietal cells, parietal cell Cells at the middle of the gastric pit that produce hydrochloric acid. Stimulated by gastrin.              
    G cells, G cell Cells at the bottom of the gastric pit that produce gastrin.              
    Gastrin A hormone, produced by G cells. Stimulates parietal and chief cells to secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase. Stimulates chief cells to produce hydrochloric acid.              
    Pepsinogen Zymogen of pepsin. Activated to pepsin by hydrochloric acid in the stomach.              
    Pepsin Protein digesting enzyme in the stomach. A protease. Accounts for a minor amount of protein digestion.              
    Gastric lipase Triglyceride digesting enzyme in the stomach that preferentially cleaves fatty acids in the sn-3 position.              
    Zymogen, zymogens An inactive precursor of an enzyme.              
    Protease, proteases An enzyme that cleaves protein.              
    Gastric juice Fluid in the stomach that includes water, acid and digestive enzymes.              
    Pyloric sphincter The sphincter separating the stomach from the duodenum.              
    Duodenum The first and shortest of three parts of the small intestine where most chemical digestion occurs.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Jejunum Middle of three parts of the large intestine where most absorption of nutrients occurs.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Ileum Final of three parts of the small intestine where vitamin B12 and bile salts are absorbed.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Epithelium Tissue made up of cells that line inner and outer body surfaces, such as skin and mucous membranes.              
    Epithelial Tissue made up of cells that line inner and outer body surfaces, such as skin and mucous membranes.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Lumen A space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube.              https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Villi, villus Microscopic, finger-like projections in a mucous membrane that form a large surface area for absorption.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/K-L
    Enterocyte, enterocytes Small intestine absorptive cell.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Microvilli Tiny projections on enterocytes that increases its absorptive surface. Also knowns as the brush border membrane.              
    Glycocalyx Glycoproteins and proteins on the outside of microvilli.              
    Glycoprotein, glycoproteins Proteins with carbohydrates attached to them.              
    Secretin Released from the small intestine in response to chyme entering from stomach, stimulates secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas into the duodenum and flow of bile from liver to the gallbladder.              
    Cholecystokinin Released from the small intestine in response to chyme entering from stomach. Stimulates secretion of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, and contraction of the gallbladder to secrete bile, into the duodenum.              
    Bicarbonate Hydrogen carbonate (HCO3), a base. Baking soda is NaHCO3.              
    Pancreatic juice Bicarbonate and digestive enzymes secreted from the pancreas into the duodenum.              
    Alpha-cell, alpha-cells Pancreatic cells that sense low blood glucose concentrations and secrete glucagon.              
    Beta-cell, beta-cells Pancreatic cells that sense high blood glucose concentrations and secrete insulin.              
    Acini, acinus cluster of cells that resemble a many-lobed "berry (like raspberry).              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acinus
    Pancreatic alpha-amylase Secreted by the liver into the duodenum, this is the major carbohydrate digestion enzyme. Cleaves alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds.              
    Pancreatic lipase Secreted by the liver into the duodenum, this is the major triglyceride digestion enzyme. Cleaves sn-1 and sn-3 fatty acids in triglycerides.              
    Procolipase Zymogen of colipase.              
    Phospholipase A2 Digestive enzyme that cleaves the C-2 fatty acid in phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) forming lysolecithin.              
    Cholesterol esterase Cleaves the fatty acid in cholesterol esters forming cholesterol and the fatty acid.              
    Liver Digestion accessory organ through producing bile. Central organ in nutrient metabolism.              
    Hepatocyte, hepatocytes Predominant and major functional cell of the liver.              
    Stellate cell, stellate cells Lipid storing cells in the liver.              
    Hepatic Of or relating to the liver.              
    Bilirubin Brown pigment secreted into bile by the liver.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Biliverdin Green bile pigment secreted into bile by the liver.              
    Chenodoxycholic acid A primary bile acid that has amphipathic properties.              
    Cholic acid A primary bile acid that has amphipathic properties.              
    Maltotriose, maltotrioses 3 glucoses bonded together.              
    Dextrins, dextrin Oligosaccharide product of digestion containing one or more alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds.              
    Ectoenzymes, ectoenzyme Enzymes on the outside of cell walls.              
    Brush border Also known as the microvilli, this membrane of the enterocyte looks like it has the teeth of a comb.               
    Sucrase, sucrases Disaccharidase that cleaves sucrose to glucose and fructose.              
    Lactase, lactases Disaccharidase that cleaves sucrose to glucose and galactose.              
    Maltase, maltases Disaccharidase that cleaves sucrose to glucoses              
    Branch point, branch points The point where two branches meet, as in polysaccharides              
    Cascade, cascades A series of reactions in which one step activates the next in a sequence that results in the amplification of the response.              
    Trypsinogen Zymogen of trypsinogen, a digestive protease active in the small intestine.              
    Trypsin A digestive protease active in the small intestine.              
    Enteropeptidase A digestive protease active in the small intestine.              
    Peptidases, peptidase Brush border enzymes that cleave peptides to amino acids.              
    2-monoglyceride, 2-monoglycerides Glycerol with a fatty acid still bonded at the sn-2 position.              
    Colipase Assists pancreatic lipase by serving as an anchor point on the triglyceride droplet, helping               
    Lysolecithin Lecithin product after the C-2 fatty acid is cleaved. Only contains 1 ester bonded fatty acid.              
    Mixed micelle, mixed micelles Micelles that include a mixture of cholesterol, bile acids, lysolecithin, 2-monoglycerides and fatty acids.              
    Ileocecal valve A sphincter between the ileum and the cecum.              
    Cecum First part of the colon/large intestine.              
    Ascending colon After the cecum and before the transverse colon. As name indicates it is portion that is ascending in the body.              
    Transverse colon After the ascending colon and before the descending colon. As name indicates it is portion that is moving across the body.              
    Descending colon After the transverse colon and before the sigmoid colon. As name indicates it is portion that is descending in the body.              
    Sigmoid colon After the descending colon and before the rectum. As name indicates it is s-shaped.              
    Electrolyte, electrolytes Compounds that separate into ions in water.              
    Feces, stool The material in a bowel movement. Stool is made up of undigested food, bacteria, mucus, and cells from the lining of the intestines.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Flora Pertaining to all plant life.              
    Microflora Incorrectly used term to describe the microbiota.              
    Microbiota Microorganisms that are found in the gastrointestinal tract.              
    Flatulence The state of having gas, often smelly, trapped (and when released, frequently with noise) in the digestive system of a human and some other animals. Also known as breaking wind; and when released, a flatus, a fart.             Adapted from: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/flatulence
    Secondary bile acid, secondary bile acids Bile acid created by fermentation of a primary bile acid in the colon.              
    Primary bile acid, primary bile acids Bile acid created directly from cholesterol.              
    Probiotic, probiotics Beneficial bacteria consumed and colonizes in the microbiota in the body.              
    Prebiotic, prebiotics Nondigestible food component that selectively stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria.              
    Synbiotic, synbiotics A product that contains both a probiotic and a prebiotic.              
    Inulin Fructose-containing oligosaccharide joined by beta bonds. Since it survives digestion it an a commonly used prebiotic.              
    Resistant starch, resistant starches Starch that is resistant to digestion. Thus, it reaches the colon where it is fermented.              
    Postbiotic, postbiotics Metabolites secreted by the microbiota.              
    Uptake Uptake into the enterocyte. Does not always result in absorption from the enterocyte into circulation.              
    Crypts of Liberkuhn, crypt of Liberkuhn, crypt An intestinal gland found between the pits between villi.              
    Stem cell, stem cells Undifferentiated cell that can develop into specialized types of cells.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Slough, sloughed The act of shedding or casting off.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sloughing
    Differentiate, differentiated, differentiation Process by which unspecialized cells become specialized into one of many different types of cells, such as neurons or epithelial cells.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Plasma membrane, plasma membranes Double layer of phospholipid molecules that makes up the membrane of cells.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Channel, channels A protein pore that allows molecules to pass in and out of a cell membrane.              
    Passive, !passive transport Not requiring energy (ATP)              
    Active, !active site, !active in, !active transport Requires energy (ATP)              
    Concentration gradient, gradient, concentration gradients, gradients Relative difference in the concentrations of solute across a membrane. Overall movement is to equalize concentration on both sides with the concentration gradient.              
    Adenosine triphosphate, ATP Common form of energy currency in the body, energy is stored in phosphate bonds.              
    Phosphate, phosphates, !glucose-6-phosphate, !glucose-1-phosphate Group composed of phosphorus with bonded to 4 oxygens and negative 3 charge (PO4-3). Ionic form of phosphoric acid.              
    Phosphorylation, phosphorylated, !oxidative phosphorylation Addition of a phosphate group, overall requires energy.              
    Dephosphorylation, dephosphorylated Removal of a phosphate group, net effect is the release of energy.              
    Solute, solutes Solution component present in a concentration less than that of the solvent.             https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...20%3A_Glossary
    Solvent, solvents Solution component present in a concentration that is higher relative to its other components.             https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...20%3A_Glossary
    Solution A homogeneous mixture made up of multiple substances generally referred to as solutes and solvents.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossa...mistry_terms#S
    Osmosis Movement of solvent, water in this case, from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration to dilute it and create equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane. Passive.              
    Simple diffusion Movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration (with the concentration gradient) across a membrane to an area of lower concentration without the help of a protein or energy.              
    Facilitated diffusion Movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration (with the concentration gradient) across a membrane to an area of lower concentration with the help of a protein. Passive.              
    Carrier protein, carrier proteins A protein that carries and ion or molecule across the membrane by changing shape after binding.              Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...ated_Diffusion
    Hypertonic Of higher concentration of solute.              
    Isotonic Of equal concentration of solute.              
    Hypotonic Of lower concentration of solute.              
    Active carrier transport Movement of solutes from an area of lower concentration (against the concentration gradient) across a membrane to an area of higher concentration with the help of a protein. Requires energy              
    Endocytosis, endocytose, endocytosed Engulfing of particles, or fluids, to be taken up into the cell in vesicles formed from the cell membrane. Active.              
    Phagocytosis, phagocytosed Endocytosis of a particle.              
    Pinocytosis Endocytosis of fluid.              
    Receptor-mediated endocytosis Endocytosis that occurs after binding to receptors.              
    Intracellular, !intracellular fluid Inside a cell.              
    Extracellular, !extracellular fluid Outside a cell.              
    Glucose transporter, GLUT, glucose transporters Facilitated diffusion transporters involved in the monosaccharide uptake and transport into cells.              
    Capillary, capillaries Smallest type of blood vessel that transfers substances between blood and tissues.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Lacteal, lacteals A lymphatic vessel within the villi of the small intestine.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/K-L
    Portal vein, portal veins Blood vessel that transports nutrients directly from the small intestine to the liver.              
    Kinase, kinases Enzyme that normally phosphorylate.              
    Glycemic response Physiological response to the rise in blood glucose after dietary intake.              
    Hyperglycemia Higher than normal amount of glucose in blood. Hyperglycemia can be a sign of diabetes or other conditions. Also called high blood sugar.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../hyperglycemia
    Hypoglycemia Lower than normal amount of glucose in blood.              
    Insulin receptor, insulin receptors Receptor on the surface of cells that insulin binds to and ultimately results in GLUT4 moving to the cell surface.              
    Vesicle, vesicles A small sac formed by a membrane and filled with liquid. Vesicles inside cells move substances into or out of the cell.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/vesicle
    Hexokinase Enzyme in muscle and adipose cells that phosphorylates glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.              
    Glucokinase Enzyme in the liver that phosphorylates glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.              
    Glucagon receptor, glucagon receptors Receptor on the surface of cells that glucagon binds to and ultimately results in the breakdown of glycogen in the liver.              
    Diabetes mellitus, diabetes, diabetic Disease caused by problems with the pancreatic hormone insulin, which lead to high blood glucose levels and symptoms such as excessive thirst and urination; includes type 1 and type 2 diabetes.              https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Type 1 diabetes, type 1 diabetic Autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas, leading to loss of glucose control and high blood glucose concentrations.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetic Multifactorial disorder in which a combination of insulin resistance and impaired insulin production lead to loss of glucose control and high blood glucose concentrations.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Glycemic index A measure of the change in blood glucose concentrations caused by eating a 50 grams of a specific tested carbohydrate compared with eating a standard amount of glucose or white bread. A higher glycemic index reflects a higher rise in blood glucose concentrations.              
    Glycemic load A measure of the change in blood glucose concentrations that uses the glycemic load multiplies by the number of carbohydrates are in a 100 gram serving. As a result, it better reflects the glycemic response to a serving of food.              
    PepT1 transporter, PepT1 transporters A di- and tripeptide transporter.              
    Albumin The most common of the proteins in the plasma.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/A-B
    Re-esterified, re-esterification Reforming of ester bonds. Commonly use to reforming of triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol esters in the enterocyte after uptake.              
    Chylomicron, chylomicrons Large, triglyceride-rich, lipoprotein released from the enterocytes into lacteal. Lowest density of the lipoproteins.              
    Fenestration, fenestrations Opening leading into a lacteal through which absorption occurs.              
    Lymph Fluid that leaks out of capillaries into spaces between cells and circulates in the vessels of the lymphatic system.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Lymphatic system System of the body that produces lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and filters pathogens from lymph and blood.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Lymph node, lymph nodes One of many small structures located along lymphatic vessels where pathogens are filtered from lymph and destroyed by lymphocytes (white blood cells).              
    Thoracic duct Duct where lymph system join general blood circulation.              
    Apolipoprotein, apolipoproteins, apoproteins A lipid-binding protein that is a constituent of the plasma lipoprotein.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoprotein
    Diameter The length of a straight line that extends around a round or spherical shape used to measure the size.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/diameter
    Density Ratio of mass to volume for a substance or object.             https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshel...20%3A_Glossary
    Very low-density lipoprotein, VLDL, very low-density lipoproteins. VLDLs Lipoprotein released from the liver that is smaller, has less triglyceride-rich, but more cholesterol-rich than a chylomicron.              
    Intermediate-density lipoprotein, IDL, intermediate-density lipoproteins, IDLs Lipoprotein formed after the action of lipoprotein lipase on very low-density lipoprotein, that is smaller, less triglyceride-rich, but more cholesterol-rich.              
    Low-density lipoprotein, LDL, low-density lipoproteins, LDLs Lipoprotein formed after the action of lipoprotein lipase on intermediate-density lipoprotein, that is smaller, contains a minor amount of triglyceride and most is the most cholesterol-rich of the lipoproteins.              
    High-density lipoprotein, HDL, high-density lipoproteins, HDLs Lipoprotein primarily derived from the liver and intestine that is primarily protein and participates in reverse cholesterol transport.              
    Inverse A relationship where if one element increases the other decreases and vice versa.              
    Lipoprotein lipase, LPL Enzyme in endothelial cells of blood vessels, that cleaves off fatty acids from triglycerides in lipoproteins. Typically active in a fed or anabolic state.              
    Chylomicron remnant, chylomicron remnants Lipoprotein left after the action of lipoprotein lipase as a chylomicron moves through general circulation. Ultimately taken up by the liver.              
    Reverse cholesterol transport The process of high-density lipoprotein scavenging cholesterol from tissues/blood vessels and returning it to the liver itself or to other lipoproteins returning to the liver.              
    Foam cell, foam cells Macrophages that have scavenged and become loaded with LDL, oxidized LDL and other lipids.              
    Fatty streak, fatty streaks A streak of lipid deposited in a blood vessel. Foam cells contribute to the development. Start of atherosclerosis.              
    Atherosclerosis Condition in which lipid builds up inside arteries, eventually causing the lumen inside to narrow and the arterial walls to stiffen.             Adapted from: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Myocardial infarction, heart attack, MI Damage to heart muscle from death of myocardial cells that occurs when blood flow is blocked to part of the heart.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Stroke, !Hemorrhagic stroke Cerebrovascular accident in which a broken artery or blood clot results in lack of blood flow to part of the brain, causing death of brain cells.             https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelv...atter/Glossary
    Docosahexaenoic acid, DHA 22 carbon omega-3 fatty acid with 6 double bonds (22:6 n-3) commonly found in fatty fish or fish oil.              
    Eicosapentanoic acid, EPA 20 carbon omega-3 fatty acid with 5 double bonds (22:6 n-3) commonly found in fatty fish or fish oil.              
    Laxative A substance that promotes bowel movements.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/laxative
    Lesion, lesions An area of abnormal tissue that may be caused by disease or trauma.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/lesion
    Peptic ulcer, peptic ulcers, ulcer A break on the skin, in the lining of an organ, or on the surface of a tissue. An ulcer forms when the surface cells become inflamed, die, and are shed. Ulcers may be linked to cancer and other diseases.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...erms/def/ulcer
    Helicobacter pylori, H pylori A type of bacterium that causes inflammation and ulcers in the stomach or small intestine. People with Helicobacter pylori infections may be more likely to develop cancer in the stomach. Also called H. pylori.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/lesion
    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs A drug that decreases fever, swelling, pain, and redness. Also called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...erms/def/nsaid
    Goblet cells, goblet cell Mucus producing cells of primary importance in the GI tract in the small intestine.              
    Gallstone, gallstones Solid material that forms in the gallbladder or common bile duct. Gallstones are made of cholesterol or other substances found in the gallbladder. They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/gallstone
    Precipitate, precipitation Forming solid in, or settling of solid out of, the solution.              
    Cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder.              
    Irritable bowel syndrome A disorder of the intestines commonly marked by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in a person’s bowel habits. This may include diarrhea or constipation, or both, with one occurring after the other. Also called IBS, irritable colon, mucus colitis, and spastic colon.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...bowel-syndrome
    Inflammatory bowel disease A general term that refers to the inflammation of the colon and rectum. Inflammatory bowel disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...-bowel-disease
    Crohn's disease A condition in which the gastrointestinal tract is inflamed over a long period of time. Crohn disease usually affects the small intestine and colon. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, stomach cramps, vomiting, and weight loss. Crohn disease increases the risk of colorectal cancer and small intestine cancer. It is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Also called regional enteritis.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../crohn-disease
    Ulcerative colitis Chronic inflammation of the colon that produces ulcers in its lining. This condition is marked by abdominal pain, cramps, and loose discharges of pus, blood, and mucus from the bowel.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rative-colitis
    Autoimmune response A condition in which the body’s immune system mistakes its own healthy tissues as foreign and attacks them. Most autoimmune diseases cause inflammation that can affect many parts of the body. The parts of the body affected depend on which autoimmune disease a person has. Common signs and symptoms include fatigue, fever, muscle aches, joint pain and swelling, skin problems, abdominal pain, digestion problems, and swollen glands. The symptoms often come and go and can be mild or severe. There are many different types of autoimmune diseases. They are more common in women and can run in families. Also called autoimmune condition.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...immune-disease
    Celiac Disease A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley. Celiac disease damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food. A person with celiac disease may become malnourished no matter how much food is consumed.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...celiac-disease
    Gluten Protein found in wheat, rye, and barley that causes an immune response in those with Celiac disease.              
    FODMAPs, FODMAP Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols that survive digestion and are prone to being fermented in the colon.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FODMAP
    Triticale Hybrid grain of wheat and rye.              
    Diverticulosis A condition marked by small sacs or pouches in the walls of a hollow organ, such as the colon. These sacs can become inflamed and cause a condition called diverticulitis.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...diverticulosis
    Diverticula, diverticulum A small pouch or sac that bulges out from the wall of a hollow organ, such as the colon.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/diverticulum
    Bowel movement Movement of feces (undigested food, bacteria, mucus, and cells from the lining of the intestines) through the bowel and out the anus. Also called defecation.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...bowel-movement
    Diverticulitis Inflammation of one or more pouches or sacs that bulge out from the wall of a hollow organ, such as the colon. Symptoms include muscle spasms and cramps in the abdomen.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...diverticulitis
    Hemorrhoids, hemorrhoid, !internal hemorrhoid, !external hemorrhoid An enlarged or swollen blood vessel, usually located near the anus or the rectum.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/hemorrhoid
    Internal hemorrhoid A hemorrhoid within the anus.              
    External hemorrhoid A hemorrhoid in the skin surrounding the anus.              
    Anabolic, !anabolic state To build. Can relation to metabolic processes or states.              
    Catabolic, !catabolic state To breakdown. Can be relation to metabolic processes or states.              
    Positive energy balance, anabolic state The state in which the number of calories consumed is greater than the number used. Energy balance is affected by physical activity, body size, amount of body fat and muscle, and genetics.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...energy-balance
    Negative energy balance, catabolic state The state in which the number of calories consumed is less than the number used. Energy balance is affected by physical activity, body size, amount of body fat and muscle, and genetics.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...energy-balance
    Cofactor, cofactors Organic or inorganic molecules that are required by enzymes to function.              
    Coenzyme, coenzymes Organic molecules required by enzymes to function.              
    Glycogenesis Glycogen synthesis.              
    Glycogenolysis Glycogen breakdown.              
    Gluconeogenesis Synthesis of glucose form a non-carbohydrate source              
    Glycolysis Metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate.              
    Transition reaction Metabolic conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA.              
    Pyruvate, pyruvic acid 3-carbon metabolic intermediate.              
    Citric Acid Cycle, Krebs Cycle, TCA Cycle Acetyl-CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate; ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced in this cycle.              
    Acetyl-CoA 2-carbon metabolic intermediate.              
    Electron transport Chain A series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane as part of oxidative phosphorylation.              
    Myocytes, myocyte Muscle cell(s).              
    Wet weight Weight with fluid. Alternatively dry weight would be without fluid.              
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD, NADH Niacin-containing cofactor that is commonly reduced or oxidized.              
    Flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, FADH Riboflavin-containing cofactor that is commonly reduced or oxidized.              
    Nucleus In biology, the structure in a cell that contains the chromosomes. The nucleus has a membrane around it, and is where RNA is made from the DNA in the chromosomes.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/nucleus
    Cytoplasm The fluid inside a cell but outside the cell's nucleus. Most chemical reactions in a cell take place in the cytoplasm.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/cytoplasm
    Mitochondria Small structures in a cell that are found in the cytoplasm (fluid that surrounds the cell nucleus). Mitochondria make most of the energy for the cell and have their own genetic material that is different from the genetic material found in the nucleus. Many diseases are caused by mutations (changes) in the DNA of mitochondria.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/mitochondria
    Lactate, lactic acid 3-carbon metabolic intermediate, can be synthesized from pyruvate.              
    Aerobic With oxygen.              
    Aerobic respiration  Without oxygen.              
    Carbon dioxide, CO2 Carbon with two oxygens. Produce during metabolism and expired.              
    Oxaloacetate, oxaloacetic acid 4-carbon metabolic intermediate.              
    Guanosine triphosphate, GTP Similar to ATP, but instead of adenosine contains guanosine. Like ATP is an energy currency.              
    Oxidative phosphorylation The metabolic pathway in which cells use the electron transport chain to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing the chemical energy stored within in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP)             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidat...hosphorylation
    Electron carrier Molecules that accept electrons and donate them in the electron transport chain.              
    Intermembrane space In the mitochondria, space between the inner membrane and outer membrane.              
    Proton gradient Difference in proton concentrations across a membrane. In the electron transport chain there is a higher proton concentration in the intermembrane space than inside the mitochondrial matrix.              
    Mitochondrial Matrix Area inside the mitochondrial inner membrane.              
    Final electron acceptor A substance that accepts the final electron. In the electron transport chain this is oxygen forming water.              
    Cori cycle A metabolic cycle that operates under anaerobic and/or glucose sparing situations. In the muscle, glucose is metabolized to pyruvate in glycolysis, than is then converted to lactate which is secreted. The lactate is taken up by the liver and used to synthesize glucose through gluconeogenesis where it is secreted so it can be taken up for use by the muscle again.              
    Lipolysis Cleave of fatty acids from triglycerides. Triglyceride breakdown.              
    Hormone-sensitive lipase, HSL Adipose lipolysis enzyme, that cleaves fatty acids from triglycerides so they can be mobilized. Activity increased by glucagon and epinephrine.              
    Epinephrine A "fight or flight" hormone and neurotransmitter. Also called adrenaline.              
    Adipose Fatty tissue.              
    Adipocyte, adipocytes Adipose cell.              
    Endothelial, endothelium The inside lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...dothelial-cell
    Glucagon A hormone produced by beta-cells in the pancreas that increases the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/glucagon
    Mobilize, mobilizing, mobilization To bring forth, potentially from storage.              
    Muscle Tissue that is responsible for force and motion.              
    Glycerol 3-carbon molecule that serves as the backbone for triglycerides and phospholipids.              
    Beta-oxidation, fatty acid oxidation Metabolic process that cleaves 2 carbons off, which then after being activated forms acetyl-CoA.              
    Carnitine An amino acid derived compound that helps shuttle long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria.              
    De novo lipogenesis, lipogenesis Synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, by adding 2 carbons to elongate the fatty acid.              
    Ketone body, ketones, ketone bodies Small molecules that are produced from amino acids or fatty acids, that can be used by the brain as an energy source when glucose is limited or not available.              
    Ketosis Condition of elevated ketone bodies in blood or urine.              
    Ketoacidosis Condition of elevated ketone bodies that leads to acidosis or changes in blood pH. More severe than ketosis.              
    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-COA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase Rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. Statin target.              
    Rate-limiting enzyme, rate-limiting enzymes Enzyme that limits that rate at which a metabolic pathway proceeds.              
    Statins, statin Pharmaceuticals that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and thereby decrease cholesterol synthesis. This results in decreased LDL levels.              
    Catabolize, catabolizing, catabolism To breakdown.              
    Transamination, transaminate Transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to a keto acid.              
    Deamination, deaminate Removal of an amine group as ammonia, for instance from an amino acid.              
    Keto acid, keto acids What is left after an amine group is removed from an amino acid.              
    Carbon skeleton, carbon skeletons What is left after an amine group is removed from an amino acid.              
    Ammonia Nitrogen with three hydrogens. Can be toxic if concentrations get too high.              
    Toxic To produce harmful or adverse effects.              
    Hyperammonemia Too high concentrations of ammonia.              
    Urea A substance formed by the breakdown of protein in the liver. The kidneys filter urea out of the blood and into the urine.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...terms/def/urea
    Glucogenic Amino acids that can be used for gluconeogenesis. Can be converted to pyruvate or citric acid cycle intermediates.              
    Ketogenic Amino acids that can be used for ketone body synthesis. Can be converted to acetyl-CoA or acetylacetyl-CoA.              
    Lysosome, lysosomes A sac-like compartment inside a cell that has enzymes that can break down cellular components that need to be destroyed.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/lysosome
    Organelle, organelles A small structure in a cell that is surrounded by a membrane and has a specific function.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/organelle
    Ubiquitin, ubiquitins Any of a class of small protein, or polypeptide, present in the cells, that play a part in modifying and degrading proteins.             Adapted from: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ubiquitin
    Proteasome A large protein complex that helps destroy other cellular proteins when they are no longer needed.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...some-inhibitor
    Degradation, degrade To degrade or breakdown.               
    Calpain Family of calcium-requiring proteases that degrade proteins.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calpain
    Catalase Antioxidant enzyme that uses iron as a cofactor and can convert hydrogen peroxide H2O2 to water. Also metabolizes a minor amount of ethanol (alcohol).              
    Alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH Primary ethanol metabolizing enzyme, metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde reducing its cofactor NAD to NADH in the process. Has limited capacity which can be exceeded.              
    Ethanol 2-carbon alcohol, which humans consume and refer to as alcohol.              
    Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system, MEOS Overflow alternative pathway to alcohol dehydrogenase for metabolizing ethanol once its capacity is exceeded. Metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde while in the process oxidizing its cofactor NADPH + H+ to NADP+. High intakes or repeated exposures increase the amount of MEOS enzymes available, which increases tolerance. These enzymes also metabolizes drugs, fatty acids and steroids so ethanol competes for their enzymes.              
    Overflow Exceeding capacity, as if water would overflow a vessel. Can be used to refer to capacity in other ways, like enzyme catalytic capacity.              
    Acetaldehyde 2-carbon ethanol metabolite, which can then be metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Buildup of this metabolite can cause undesirable symptoms such as flushing, dizziness, nausea, and headaches.              
    Tolerance The amount that can be tolerated without adverse effects. In ethanol, this is impacted by sex, size, and previous metabolic capacity from exposure.              
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH Enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde to acetyl-CoA, while reducing cofactor NAD to NADH.              
    Integrated, integrate Bringing together and uniting of things.             Adapted from: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integration
    Tissue A group or layer of cells that work together to perform a specific function.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/tissue
    Glucose-6-phosphatase Enzyme that cleaves the phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate to glucose. Found in the liver and kidney.              
    Kidney, kidneys One of a pair of organs in the abdomen. The kidneys remove waste and extra water from the blood (as urine) and help keep chemicals (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium) balanced in the body. The kidneys also make hormones that help control blood pressure and stimulate bone marrow to make red blood cells.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/kidney
    Extrahepatic Located or occurring outside the liver.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/extrahepatic
    Brain The organ inside the head that controls all body functions of a human being. Made up of billions of nerve cells, the brain is protected by the cranium (the bones that form the head). It is made up of three major parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...erms/def/brain
    Red blood cell, red blood cells, erythrocyte, erythrocytes A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of red blood cells in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It may be used to look for conditions such as anemia, dehydration, malnutrition, and leukemia. Also called erythrocyte and RBC.              
    Fed state Anabolic state following feeding that is in positive energy balance.              
    Atkins diet Low-carbohydrate or carbohydrate-restricted dietary pattern that consists of multiple phases.              
    Ornish/Pritikin diet High-carbohydrate, low-fat dietary pattern.              
    Fast, fasting To abstain from. Most often used in nutrition to refer to abstain from eating.              
    Spare To not use when amounts are limited.              
    State, condition, states, conditions, !Kansas State University Current status, state or condition.              
    Nausea A feeling of sickness or discomfort in the stomach that may come with an urge to vomit.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/nausea
    flush, flushing To become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flushing_(physiology)
    Headache, headaches The symptom of pain in the face, head, or neck.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headache
    Dizziness, dizzy Having a sensation of whirling, with a tendency to fall; giddy; feeling unbalanced or lightheaded.             https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dizzy
    Polymorphism, polymorphisms Polymorphism involves one of two or more variants of a particular DNA sequence. The most common type of polymorphism involves variation at a single base pair. Polymorphisms can also be much larger in size and involve long stretches of DNA. Called a single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP (pronounced snip), scientists are studying how SNPs in the human genome correlate with disease, drug response, and other factors.             Adapted from: https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Polymorphism
    Dietary reference intake, dietary reference intakes, DRI, DRIs A set of reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of healthy people.             https://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInforma...e_Intakes.aspx
    Deficiency, deficiencies, deficient Shortage of a required substance (usually a nutrient in nutrition) needed by the body.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/deficiency
    Opthalamia Inflammation of the eye.              
    Beriberi, !wet beriberi, !dry beriberi Condition caused by thiamin deficiency. Can be wet or dry.              
    Element, elements a simple substance that cannot be broken down into smaller parts or changed into another substance. Examples of elements are hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and calcium.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/element
    Macromineral Minerals that need to be consumed in the greatest quantities.              
    Trace mineral Minerals that need to be consumed in less quantities than macrominerals, but more than ultratrace minerals.              
    Ultratrace mineral Minerals that need to be consumed in the lowest quantities.              
    Dietary Guidelines Provide qualitative advice on what to eat and drink to meet nutrient needs, promote health, and prevent disease.             Adapted from: https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/ab...ary-guidelines
    Estimate Average Requirement, EAR, EARs Average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular age, sex, and life-stage group.             https://www.nap.edu/resource/25353/interactive/
    Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA, RDAs Average daily nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a particular age, sex, and life-stage group.             https://www.nap.edu/resource/25353/interactive/
    Adequate Intake, AI, Ais An intake (not a requirement) that is likely to exceed the actual requirements of almost all individuals in an age, sex, and life-stage group; established when scientific evidence is not sufficient to determine an RDA.             https://www.nap.edu/resource/25353/interactive/
    Tolerable Upper Intake Level, UL, ULs The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for nearly all people in a particular age, sex, and life-stage group.             https://www.nap.edu/resource/25353/interactive/
    Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes, !Chronic The level of intake for which there was moderate strength of evidence of chronic disease risk reduction.             https://www.nap.edu/resource/25353/interactive/
    Standard deviation The standard deviation is a widely used measure of variability. It is computed by taking the square root of the variance.             Adapted from: https://stats.libretexts.org/Bookshe...02%3A_Glossary
    Normal distribution One of the most common continuous distributions, a normal distribution is sometimes referred to as a "bell-shaped distribution."             https://stats.libretexts.org/Bookshe...02%3A_Glossary
    Antioxidant, antioxidants, !Meaningful antioxidant, !Meaningful antioxidants A substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Antioxidants typically donate an electron to stabilize these compounds.              
    Superoxide Dismutase Antioxidant enzymes that use copper, zinc, and/or manganese as cofactor to convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide.              
    Electron A small particle with a negative charge that is found in all atoms.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/electron
    Free radical A molecule with an unpaired electron in its outer orbital.              
    Orbital Places surrounding the nucleus of an atom where the electrons are most likely to be at any given time.              https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_orbital
    Reactive oxygen species, ROS, reactive oxygen spec Unstable oxygen-containing molecule that seeks out other compounds to react with. Some ROS have radicals meaning they are oxygen-containing free radicals.              
    Oxidative stress imbalance where more ROS/free radicals are produced than the body is able quench.              
    Endogenous Produced inside an organism or cell. The opposite is external (exogenous) production.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/endogenous
    Exogenous Produced outside an organism or cell. The opposite is internal (endogenous) production.              
    Atherogenic Contributing to atherosclerosis.              
    Cataract, cataracts A condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy. Symptoms include blurred, cloudy, or double vision; sensitivity to light; and difficulty seeing at night. They may occur in people of all ages, but are most common in the elderly.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/cataract
    Mutation Any change in the DNA sequence of a cell. Mutations may be caused by mistakes during cell division, or they may be caused by exposure to DNA-damaging agents in the environment.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rchMode=Begins
    Glutathione peroxidase An antioxidant selenoenzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide to water.              
    Thioredoxin reductase An antioxidant selenoenzyme.               
    Meaningful antioxidant, meaningful antioxidants An antioxidant found in appreciable amounts in the location of need and is not redundant with another antioxidant.              
    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC In vitro antioxidant assay.              
    Alpha-tocopherol derivative, alpha-tocopherol ester Alpha-tocopherol with an added compound ester bonded to it.              
    Chiral center, chiral centers A term chiral used to describe an object that is non-superimposable on its mirror image.             Adapted from: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Organi...try/Glossary#S
    Racemic One that has equal amounts of different possibilities at chiral centers.              
    alpha-tocopherol transfer protein, alpha-TTP Protein found in the liver that preferentially binds to 2R-alpha-tocopherol to facilitate its incorporation into VLDL.              
    Hemorrhagic stroke A type of stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain or on the surface of the brain leaks or breaks open, causing bleeding in or around the brain. This leads to swelling and pressure, which can damage cells and tissue in the brain.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rrhagic-stroke
    International units, IU, IUs Unit of measurement for the amount of some vitamins.              
    Hydroxylate, hydroxylating, hydroxylation The process of adding a hydroxyl (-OH) group.              
    Tropocollagen Three collagen strands wound together forming a strong, cross-linked structure.              
    Scurvy Condition that can occur because of vitamin C deficiency, characterized by bleeding gums, pinpoint hemorrhages, and corkscrew hairs.              
    Inorganic Not organic or containing carbon.              
    Codon In DNA or RNA, a sequence of 3 consecutive nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid or signals the termination of gene translation (stop or termination codon).             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...nary/def/codon
    Selenoprotein, selenoproteins Proteins that contain selenocysteine as an amino acid inserted by its codon.              
    Selenoenzyme, selenoenzymes A subset of selenoproteins that have an enzymatic function.              
    Keshan disease Condition associated with selenium deficiency, along with coxsackievirus, which affects the heart.              
    Kashin-Beck disease Condition associated with selenium deficiency, along with other factors, that affects cartilage, bone, and joints that results in deformity and stunted growth.              
    Virulent Refers to the ability of a virus or a bacterium to cause damage to its host. Opposite of avirulent.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/virulent
    Avirulent Inability of a virus or bacterium to cause damage to its host. Opposite of virulent.              
    Host An organism harboring another organism or organisms on or in itself.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host
    One-carbon metabolism, 1-carbon metabolism Movement of 1-carbon units, generally methyl groups.              
    Thyroid, thyroid gland, thyroid glands A gland located beneath the larynx (voice box) that makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin. The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/thyroid
    Parathyroid glands One of four pea-sized glands found on the surface of the thyroid. Produces parathyroid hormone.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...athyroid-gland
    Cross-linking, cross-link, cross-linked A bond that links one molecule to another.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-link
    Sanitize, sanitizing, sanitization Cleaning and disinfecting of the an area or item.               
    Goitrogen, goitrogens Substances that disrupt the production of thyroid hormones by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goitrogen
    Triiodothyronine The active form of thyroid hormone (T3). Has 3 iodines.              
    Thyroxine The primary circulating form of thyroid hormone (T4). Has 4 iodines.              
    Prohormone Precursor to a hormone.              
    Deiodinase, deiodinases Selenoenzymes that metabolize thyroid hormones.              
    Hypothyroidism Too little thyroid hormone. Symptoms include weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and sensitivity to the cold. Also called underactive thyroid.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...hypothyroidism
    Hyperthyroidism A condition that occurs when the thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than the body needs. Signs and symptoms include weight loss, fatigue, rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, diarrhea, nervousness, mood swings, shaky hands, trouble sleeping, trouble tolerating heat, muscle weakness, and a goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland that may cause the bottom of the neck to look swollen). Also called overactive thyroid.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...yperthyroidism
    Goiter An enlarged thyroid. It may be caused by too little iodine in the diet or by other conditions.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/goiter
    Cretinism A condition marked by impaired physical and mental development, due to insufficient thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) often caused by insufficient dietary iodine during pregnancy.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congen...iency_syndrome
    Paralysis Loss of ability to move all or part of the body.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/paralysis
    Diarrhea Frequent and watery bowel movements.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/diarrhea
    Vomit, vomiting To eject some or all of the contents of the stomach through the mouth.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...erms/def/vomit
    Acute Symptoms or signs that begin and worsen quickly; not chronic.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...erms/def/acute
    Chronic, !chronic disease, !chronic diseases, !Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes A condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic
    Proteoglycan, proteoglycans A molecule that contains both protein and glycosaminoglycans, which are a type of polysaccharide. Proteoglycans are found in cartilage and other connective tissues.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/proteoglycan
    Cartilage A tough, flexible tissue that lines joints and gives structure to the nose, ears, larynx, and other parts of the body.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/cartilage
    Toxicity, toxicities The extent to which something is harmful or causes adverse effects.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/toxicity
    Schizophrenia A group of severe mental disorders in which a person has trouble telling the difference between real and unreal experiences, thinking logically, having normal emotional responses to others, and behaving normally in social situations.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../schizophrenia
    Parkinson disease A progressive disorder of the nervous system marked by muscle tremors, muscle rigidity, decreased mobility, stooped posture, slow voluntary movements, and a mask-like facial expression.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...kinson-disease
    Pentose, pentoses A 5-carbon monosaccharide.              
    Decarboxylation Removal of a carboxyl group to release as carbon dioxide.              
    Dry beriberi, !beriberi Type of thiamin deficiency that affects the nervous system, result in loss of muscle function, numbness, and/or tingling.              
    Wet beriberi, !beriberi Type of thiamin deficiency that affects the cardiovascular system result in pitting edema, and heart enlargement.              
    Pitting edema "Pitting" when, after pressure is applied to a small area, the indentation persists after the release of the pressure.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edema
    Displace, displaces When something take the place of something else.              
    Excrete, excretion, excreted, excreting To get rid of waste material from the blood, tissues, or organs by a normal discharge (such as sweat, urine, or stool).             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/excrete
    Secrete, secretion, secreted, secreting To form and release a substance. In the body, cells secrete substances, such as sweat that cools the body or hormones that act in other parts of the body.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/secrete
    Photosensitive Sensitive to light.              
    Activate, activation, activated To make something active.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/activate
    Ariboflavinosis Riboflavin deficiency.              
    Angular stomatitis, angular cheilitis, cheilosis Lesion or cracking at the corners of the mouth.              
    Glossitis Inflammation of the tongue.              
    Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin.              
    Optic Related to the eye or vision.              
    Intermediate, intermediates A product that is an intermediate of a metabolic process or pathway.              
    Unresolved Not known.              
    Pellagra Niacin deficiency.              
    Base, basic, !baseline A substance that has a pH greater than 7.              
    Supplement, supplements, supplementation Taking nutrients often in a pill or nondietary manner.              
    Glucoside, glucosides A molecule in which a glucose is bound by a glycosidic bond.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycoside
    Heme, Heme iron A type of iron found primarily in foods of animal origin. Found in hemoglobin, binds to oxygen.              
    Microcytic hypochromic anemia, microcytic anemia, hypochromic anemia, microcytic, hypochromic Anemia characterized by small red blood cells, with low color because of decreased hemoglobin. Iron and vitamin B6 deficiency can cause.              
    Convulsion, convulsions A condition in which muscles contract and relax quickly and cause uncontrolled shaking of the body.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/convulsion
    Carpal tunnel syndrome A condition that results from compression of the median nerve by the bones and connective tissue in the wrist.              
    Morning sickness, hyperemesis gravidarum Nausea and vomiting that typically occurs early after pregnancy.              
    Premenstrual syndrome, PMS A collection of physical and emotional symptoms that occur before menstruation.               
    Biotinidase Enzyme that cleaves biocytin to biotin and lysine.              
    Carboxylase Enzyme that catalyzes the addition of carbon dioxide to form a carboxylic acid group.              
    Biotinylation, biotinylated An epigenetic modification where biotin is rarely added to histones.              
    Epigenetic, epigenetics, !epigenetic modification, !epigenetic modifications Epigenetics is an emerging field of science that studies heritable changes caused by the activation and deactivation of genes without any change in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. The word epigenetics is of Greek origin and literally means over and above (epi) the genome.             https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glos...enetics?id=528
    Epigenetic modification, epigenetic modifications Changes made to whether genes are expressed without changing the DNA sequence. 2 major types are DNA methylation and histone modifications.              
    Nucleotide, nucleotides A molecule consisting of a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate group, and a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA; ribose in RNA). DNA and RNA are polymers comprised of many nucleotides, strung together like beads in a necklace.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/nucleotide
    Genome The complete set of DNA (genetic material) in an organism. In people, almost every cell in the body contains a complete copy of the genome. The genome contains all of the information needed for a person to develop and grow. S             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/genome
    Histone, histones, !histone modification A type of protein found in chromosomes that allows DNA to wrap around it.              
    Methylate, methylated, methylation Adding a methyl group to other molecules. Methylation of proteins or nucleic acids may affect how they act in the body.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ef/methylation
    Acetylation, acetylate Addition of an acetyl group.              
    Deacetylation, deacetylate Removal of an acetyl group.              
    Transcription The process of synthesizing messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../transcription
    Translation The process of synthesizing an amino acid sequence (protein product) from the messenger RNA (mRNA) code             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ef/translation
    Epigenetic code, epigenome Chemical compounds that modify, or mark, the genome in a way that tells it what to do, where to do it, and when to do it. Different cells have different epigenetic marks. These epigenetic marks, which are not part of the DNA itself, can be passed on from cell to cell as cells divide, and from one generation to the next.             https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Epigenome
    Avidin Protein found in raw egg whites that tightly binds to biotin.              
    Denature, denatures, denatured A structural change in biomolecules such as proteins or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which in most cases is associated with a loss of the biological function of these molecules, although their primary structure remains unchanged. Denaturation can be due to physical or chemical influences.              https://de.zxc.wiki/wiki/Denaturierung_(Biochemie)
    Monoglutamate Containing one glutamate.              
    Polyglutamate Containing more than one, or multiple, glutamates.              
    Synthetic Not made from natural materials.             Adapted from: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic
    Natural From nature of made of natural material.              
    Circulating form Form found in circulation (blood).              
    Megaloblastic anemia, macrocytic anemia Anemia characterized by large, nucleated, immature red blood cells that do not efficiently carry oxygen.              
    Neural tube defect, neural tube defects, !Neural tube A group of birth defects in which an opening in the spine or cranium remains from early in human development.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neural_tube_defect
    Spine bifida A birth defect in which there is incomplete closing of the spine and the membranes around the spinal cord during early development in pregnancy.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spina_bifida
    Neural tube The embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neural_tube
    Conception The beginning of pregnancy, marked by fertilization of an egg by a sperm.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/conception
    Prevalence A measure of the total number of people in a specific group who have (or had) a certain disease, condition, or risk factor (such as smoking or obesity) at a specific point in time or during a given period of time.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/prevalence
    Fortification, fortify The addition of nutrients to foods.              
    Occurrence An actual instance when a situation occurs; an event or happening.             https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/occurrence
    Severity The degree of something undesirable; badness or seriousness.             https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/severity
    Pseudovitamin A vitamin-like analogue that is biologically inactive in humans.             https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pseudovitamin
    Sublingual Latin for "under the tongue"              
    Haptocorrin Protein released by salivary gland that binds strongly to vitamin B12.              
    Intrinsic factor Protein released in the stomach that binds to vitamin B12 and later is involved in its absorption by binding to its receptor.              
    Endosome, endosomes A vesicle internalized during endocytosis.              
    Transcobalamin II Vitamin B12 transport protein.              
    Pernicious anemia Anemia that result from a lack of intrinsic factor.              
    Atrophic gastritis Chronic inflammatory condition of the gastric mucosa that can lead loss of glands in the stomach. This condition can lead to decreased intrinsic factor production.              
    Homocysteine A sulfur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid whose concentrations are increased in circulation in cardiovascular disease.              
    Structure The spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_structure
    Lichen A symbiotic relationship between 2 bacteria and a fungus.              
    Symbiotic A close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiosis
    Latitude A geographical term denoting the north–south angular location of a place on the Earth.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latitu...isambiguation)
    UV light, ultraviolet light Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrav...isambiguation)
    UV-B A spectrum of ultraviolet light with wavelengths ranging from 280–315 nanometers, which does not tan the skin much. Type of light that leads to vitamin D3 synthesis.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UV-B_lamps
    Photon Particles which transmit light.             Adapted from: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon
    Melanin A pigment that gives color to skin and eyes and helps protect it from damage by ultraviolet light.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/melanin
    Pigmentation Color of tissue. Pigments are responsible for the color of skin, eyes and hair.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/pigment
    Sun protection factor, SPF Indication of the effectiveness of sunscreen, or other protectants, to prevent sunburn or skin damage from UV light. 1 over the number of UV photons that reach skin.              
    Dermatologist, dermatologists A doctor who has special training to diagnose and treat skin problems.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../dermatologist
    Sensible sun exposure Sun exposure on the face, arms, and hands for 10-15 minutes 2-3 times per week between 10 AM-3 PM.              
    UV-A A spectrum of ultraviolet light with wavelengths ranging from 315-400 nanometers, which does tan skin.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultraviolet
    Disparity A notable difference.              
    Lactose intolerance, lactose intolerant An inability to properly digest, and thus absorb, lactose.              
    Bloating A swelling or feeling of fullness in the abdomen. Bloating is usually the result of gas in the intestines and can be caused by many things, including overeating, lactose intolerance, and constipation.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/bloating
    Parathyroid hormone, PTH A hormone made by the parathyroid gland that helps the body store and use calcium.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...hyroid-hormone
    Depot A place for storage.              
    Reservoir A storage place.              
    Hydroxyapatite How calcium and phosphate are mineralized in bones and teeth. Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.              
    Deposited, deposition, deposit To add to.              
    Liberated, resorption To remove from.              
    Osteoblast, osteoblasts Bone cells that build bone by synthesizing hydroxyapatite.              
    Osteoclast, osteoclasts Bone cells that breakdown bone by breaking down hydroxyapatite.              
    Vitamin D receptor, VDR Nuclear hormone receptor whose ligand is 1,25(OH)D2.              
    Vitamin D binding protein, DBP Vitamin D transport protein, that typically transports 25(OH)D2 or 25(OH)D3 through circulation.              
    Calcitonin A hormone produced in the thyroid gland that when the calcium concentration is too high, calcitonin lowers it.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/calcitonin
    Nuclear hormone receptor Receptors found in the nucleus whose ligands are hormones, or hormone-like molecules such as retinoids.              
    Steroid hormone Hormones that are synthesized from sterols.              
    Dimer Paired proteins.              
    Hormone response element, HRE Specific area in the promoter where the nuclear receptor dimers bind.              
    Promoter A regulatory region of DNA usually located upstream of a gene, providing a control point for regulated gene transcription.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promoter
    Gene The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...terms/def/gene
    Vitamin D response element, VDRE Specific area in the promoter where the Vitamin D Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor dimer binds.              
    Calbindin Calcium-binding protein that helps facilitate uptake into, and transport across, the enterocyte, thereby increasing calcium absorption.              
    Rickets A condition in children in which bones become soft and deformed because they don’t have enough calcium and phosphorus.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/rickets
    Rachitic rosary Prominent knobs of bone at the costochondral joints (beading of the ribs).             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachitic_rosary
    Osteomalacia A condition in adults in which bones become soft and deformed because they don’t have enough calcium and phosphorus.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/osteomalacia
    Fracture, fracture A partial or complete break in bone.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_fracture
    Insufficiency Less than a sufficient amount. Inadequate.              
    Suboptimal Less than optimal amount.               
    Phytate, phytates, phytic acid Molecule that contains a number of phosphate groups, whose negative charges can bind to minerals thus inhibiting their absorption.              
    Axon A long extension from the neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/A-B
    Tropomyosin A muscle protein involved in contraction.              
    Actin A muscle protein involved in contraction.              
    Gla proteins Protein that contains gamma-carboxyglutamic acid.              
    Hypocalcemia Low blood calcium concentration.              
    Tetany Involuntary muscle contraction.              
    Matrix Proteins in bones that mineral is deposited on.              
    Menopause The time of life when a woman’s ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods stop. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../def/menopause
    Estrogen A type of hormone made by the body that helps develop and maintain female sex characteristics and the growth of long bones.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...s/def/estrogen
    Bone mass The amount of bone (weight) that a person has.              
    Bone mineral density, BMD A measure of the amount of minerals (mostly calcium and phosphorous) contained in a certain volume of bone.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ineral-density
    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA An imaging test that measures bone mineral density (the amount of bone mineral contained in a certain volume of bone) by passing x-rays with two different energy levels through the bone.              Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...terms/def/dexa
    t-score The number of standard deviations above or below the mean for a healthy 30-year-old adult of the same sex and ethnicity as the patient.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_density
    Hyperparathyroidism A condition in which the parathyroid gland (one of four pea-sized organs found on the thyroid) makes too much parathyroid hormone. This causes a loss of calcium from the bones and an increased level of calcium in the blood. Symptoms include bone pain and kidney problems.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...parathyroidism
    Calcification Deposits of calcium in the tissues.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../calcification
    Kidney stone A solid deposit forms in the urinary tract.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../calcification
    Soft drink A normally carbonated drink that contains sweetener.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_drink
    Cola A carbonated soft drink flavored with vanilla, cinnamon, citrus oils and other flavorings.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cola
    Secondary messenger Intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.             https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_messenger_system
    Anion An negatively charged ion.              
    Cation An positively charged ion.              
    Fluorohydroxyapatite A molecule where fluoride replaces the hydroxyl molecules in hydroxyapatite. More resistant to acid degradation that hydroxyapatite.              
    Cavity, cavities A hollow area or hole. It may describe a body cavity (such as the space within the abdomen) or a hole in a tooth caused by decay.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/cavity
    Mottling A pattern of irregular marks, spots, streaks, blotches or patches of different shades or colors.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mottle
    Pitting, !Pitting edema The formation of pits on a surface because of corrosion.             https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pitting
    Fluorosis Toxicity of fluoride that can result in pitting and mottling of teeth.              
    Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase Enzyme that uses vitamin K as a cofactor, converting it to vitamin K epoxide, while adding a carboxyl group to the amino acid glutamic acid (glutamate) forming gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla).              
    Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, Gla Modified version of the amino acid glutamic acid (glutamate ) found in Gla proteins that can bind to calcium cause them to activated.              
    Gla protein, Gla proteins Protein containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. These activated proteins are needed in the blood clotting cascade for it to function normally.              
    Blood clot, blood clotting The process that changes liquid blood to a gelatinous mass.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...s/Glossary/C-D
    Warfarin, Coumadin A drug that prevents blood from clotting. It belongs to the family of drugs called anticoagulants (blood thinners). It prevents the regeneration of vitamin K from vitamin K epoxide.              
    Osteocalcin Gla protein that is common in bones and teeth.              
    Placental barrier There is no intermingling of fetal and maternal blood in the placenta.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placenta
    Hemorrhage Loss of blood from damaged blood vessels. A hemorrhage may be internal or external, and usually involves a lot of bleeding in a short time.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...def/hemorrhage
    Preformed vitamin A All ready formed vitamin A. Another way of describing retinoids.              
    Retinoid, retinoids, !Retinoid X receptor Term to refer to retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid.              
    Lutein Yellow nonprovitamin A carotenoid.              
    Zeaxanthin Yellow nonprovitamin A carotenoid.              
    Retinol activity equivalents, RAE Units of vitamin A value that are made to account for the differences in bioavailability and bioconversion of provitamin A carotenoids.              
    Bioconversion The amount of retinal formed from the cleaved of the provitamin A carotenoids.              
    Alpha-carotene An orange provitamin A carotenoid. It is asymmetrical, so only 1 molecule of retinal is formed when it is cleaved.              
    Beta-cryptoxanthin A red provitamin A carotenoid. It is asymmetrical, so only 1 molecule of retinal is formed when it is cleaved.              
    Transthyretin Transport protein that carries thyroxine (T4) can complexes with retinol-binding protein through circulation.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transthyretin
    Retinoic acid receptor, retinoic acid receptor, RAR, RARs Nuclear hormone receptor whose ligand is all-trans retinoic acid.              
    Retinoid X receptor, RXR, RXRs Nuclear hormone receptor whose ligand is 9-cis retinoic acid. However, its major function is serving as the dimer partner for other nuclear hormone receptors.              
    Ligand, ligands A compound that binds to a nuclear receptor.              
    Dimerized The process of forming a dimer or pair.              
    Retinoic Acid Response Element, RARE Specific area in the promoter where the Retinoic Acid Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor dimer binds.              
    Retina The light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the back of the eye that receive images and sends them as electric signals through the optic nerve to the brain.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...rms/def/retina
    Photoreceptor cell, photoreceptor cells A cell found in the retina that is capable of converting light to electrical signals.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual...totransduction
    Rod, rods Photoreceptor cells that can function better in low light, primarily for seeing black and white.              
    Cone, cones Photoreceptor cells that can function better in bright light, primarily for seeing color.              
    Rhodopsin Formed from 11-cis retinal and the protein opsin. Light striking it causes it to split to opsin and all-trans retinal, a signal is sent to brain allow you to see.              
    Opsin A light-sensitive protein that is used to form rhodopsin.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opsin
    Night blind, night blindness A condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light. Also known as nyctalopia.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyctalopia
    Reproduction The biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents.              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reproduction
    Homeostatically-controlled The state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems and resistance to changes to this stable internal environment.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeostasis
    Xerophthalmia A destructive dryness of the eye due to dietary vitamin A deficiency. There are multiple stages of this condition.              
    Hyperkeratosis A condition marked by thickening of the outer layer of the skin, which is made of keratin (a tough, protective protein).             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/keratin
    Keratin A type of protein found on epithelial cells, which line the inside and outside surfaces of the body. Keratins help form the tissues of the hair, nails, and the outer layer of the skin. They are also found on cells in the lining of organs, glands, and other parts of the body             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/keratin
    Genetically modified, GMO Any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneti...ified_organism
    Teratogen A substance that can cause birth defects.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teratology
    Teratogenic Causing a birth defects.              
    Acne An infection of the skin, caused by changes in the sebaceous glands. The redness comes from the inflammation of the skin in response to the infection.             Adapted from: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acne
    Carotenodermia Overaccumulation of beta-carotene below the skin leading it to have an orange color.              
    Lycopenodermia Overaccumulation of lycopene below the skin leading it to have a pink color.              
    Myoglobin An iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the skeletal muscle tissue.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myoglobin
    Non-heme iron Forms of iron that are not found in heme.              
    Ferritin Primary iron storage protein.              
    Duodenal cytochrome b, Dcytb A reductase enzyme on the brush boarder, that catalyzes the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2 using vitamin C.              
    Meat protein factor, MPF The unidentified factor found in meat that enhances non-heme iron absorption.              
    Chelate Bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelation
    Polyphenol A large family of naturally occurring organic compounds characterized by multiples of phenol (ringed) units. Inhibits the absorption of some minerals.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphenol
    Oxalate Compound that binds to and inhibits the absorption of some minerals.              
    Transferrin Iron transport protein that takes Fe3+ through circulation.              
    Hephaestin Copper containing protein found on the membrane of enterocytes that has the primary protein that oxidizes Fe2+ to Fe3+ as it is transported through ferroportin so Fe3+ can bind to transferrin.              
    Ceruloplasmin Copper transport protein that takes Cu2+ through circulation. It also serves as the backup protein that oxidizes Fe2+ to Fe3+ so it can bind to transferrin.              
    Ferroportin Iron transporter in the enterocyte that allows iron to be absorbed into circulation.              
    Transferrin receptor Receptor found in tissues that binds to transferrin and cause it to be endocytosed.              
    Hemosiderin Overflow iron storage protein.              
    Spleen The large lymphatic organ near the stomach that stores blood and produces lymphocytes.             https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatom...Glossary/Q,R,S
    Bone marrow A semi-solid tissue found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_marrow
    Hepcidin Hormone produced in liver response to high iron status that causes degradation of ferroportin, thus preventing iron absorption.              
    Cytochrome, cytochromes Proteins that are involved in the electron transport chain and reduction-oxidation reactions.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytochrome
    Deplete, depleted, depletion The use of a resource faster than it can be replenished.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_depletion
    Bone A rigid tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone
    Invasive When there is contact with the mucosa, or skin break, or internal body cavity beyond a natural or artificial body orifice.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-invasive_procedure
    Hematocrit Method of iron status that centrifuges blood and the packed cell volume or the amount of red blood cells that are at the bottom of the tube. Higher packed cell volume means higher iron status.              
    Status State. Typically used to refer to nutrient status (deficient, adequate, excess, toxic).              
    Packed cell volume, PCV Amount of red blood cell found in the bottom of hematocrit after centrifugation.              
    Centrifuge, centrifugation A devise that spins samples to separate various components in a fluid.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifuge
    Saturation A clinical measure of the level of fullness of a substance.              
    Apathetic A state of indifference, lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apathy
    Hemolysis Rupturing of red blood cells.              
    Hemochromatosis Genetic condition where there is a mutation in a protein in the enterocyte that prevents the normal decrease in iron absorption.              
    Thionein Storage protein for zinc and copper. Zinc is the better inducer, copper the more avid binder.              
    Metallothionein Thionein that has bound a mineral or metal.              
    Acrodermatitis enteropathica Condition that results from a mutation in ZIP4, which prevents the update of zinc into the enterocyte and thus may cause deficiency.              
    Menke's disease A genetic disorder that may result in copper deficiency believed to be due to ATP7A mutation that prevents copper for leaving the enterocyte, and thus is not absorbed.              
    Wilson's disease A genetic disorder that may result in copper toxicity where a mutation in ATP7B prevents copper excretion, thus potentially resulting in copper toxicity.              
    Kayser-Fleischer rings Golden to greenish-brown rings fond on the edges of the cornea that some times are seen in individuals with Wilson's disease.              
    Cornea The transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.              Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornea
    Hypertension A blood pressure of 140/90 or higher. Hypertension usually has no symptoms. It can harm the arteries and cause an increase in the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and blindness. Also called high blood pressure.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/hypertension
    Balance Homeostasis. Negative balance is less than homeostasis, Positive balance is more than homeostasis.              
    Compartment, compartments Different segments.              
    Aldosterone A steroid hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps control the balance of water and salts in the kidney by keeping sodium in and releasing potassium from the body.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ef/aldosterone
    Antidiuretic hormone, ADH A hormone that helps blood vessels constrict and helps the kidneys control the amount of water and salt in the body. This helps control blood pressure and the amount of urine that is made. Antidiuretic hormone is made by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus and is secreted into the blood by the pituitary gland. C             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...uretic-hormone
    Hypothalamus The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/hypothalamus
    Adrenal, adrenal glands A small gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These hormones help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney.             Adapted from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/.../adrenal-gland
    Pituitary gland A pea-sized organ attached to the part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It lies at the base of the brain above the back of the nose. The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland, which then makes hormones that control other glands and many of the body’s functions, including growth and fertility.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ituitary-gland
    Sweat Fluid excreted by the sweat glands during perspiration.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweat_(disambiguation)
    Hyponatremia Lower-than-normal amount of sodium in the blood.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/hyponatremia
    Cramp, cramps A sharp pain that occurs when a muscle suddenly contracts (tightens up). Cramps commonly occur in the abdomen and legs.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...erms/def/cramp
    Salt Sodium chloride (NaCl).              
    Nerve transmission Neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and react with the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron) a short distance away.             Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmission
    Muscle contraction The activation of tension-generating sites within muscle cells. It does not necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length, such as when holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.              Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscle_contraction
    Reflex, reflexes An involuntary, unplanned sequence or action and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.              Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflex
    Constipation, constipated A condition in which stool becomes hard, dry, and difficult to pass, and bowel movements don’t happen very often. Other symptoms may include painful bowel movements, and feeling bloated, uncomfortable, and sluggish.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...f/constipation
    Exchangeable Capable of being exchanged.              
    Seizure Sudden, uncontrolled body movements and changes in behavior that occur because of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Symptoms include loss of awareness, changes in emotion, loss of muscle control, and shaking.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...ms/def/seizure
    Disorientation A mental state marked by confusion about time, place, or who one is.             https://www.cancer.gov/publications/...disorientation
    Salt-sensitive Blood pressure is sensitive to salt such that increasing intake increases blood pressure, decreasing intake decreases blood pressure.              
    Accordance How well the recommendations are being met.              
    Hypertensive Individuals who have hypertension.              

     

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