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Medicine LibreTexts

3.08: Summary

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    • Cells consist of three parts: the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus.
    • Substances pass through the plasma membrane by diffusion(gases, lipids), osmosis (water), active transport (glucose, ions), phagocytosis (particles), pinocytosis (fluids) and exocytosis (particles and fluids).
    • Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane. Water diffuses from high water "concentration" to low water "concentration".
    • The cytoplasm consists of cytosol in which are suspended cell inclusions and organelles.
    • organelles include ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and lysosomes.
    • The nucleus controls the activity of the cell. It contains the chromosomes that are composed of DNA.
    • The cell divides by mitosis and meiosis



    • Ruth Lawson (Otago Polytechnic; Dunedin, New Zealand)