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Medicine LibreTexts

11.1: Chapter 11: Urinary system

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  • A. Wong and R. Cianciolo

    This chapter will cover the urinary system.

    Chapter Learning Objectives

    imageBy the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

    • Describe the components of the nephron, with specific reference to histologic features, location and function.
    • Identify and describe the histologic features, location and function of the following components of the glomerulus: endothelial cells, glomerular basement membrane, podocytes, mesangial cells, Bowman’s space, Bowman’s capsule.
    • Describe how plasma (intravascular) is filtered across the glomerular basement membrane, and describe the cells that contribute to the filtration barrier.
    • Describe how the tubular segment of the nephron modifies filtrate to maintain homeostasis.
    • Describe the anatomic and microanatomy of the lower urinary tract.

    Review Questions

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to answer the following:

    • Define the following renal components: Medullary ray, lobe, lobule, papilla and calyx
    • How do the cortex, corticomedullary junction, and medulla differ?
    • What are the 3 components of the glomerular filtration barrier? What are their properties?
    • Describe endothelial fenestrations and glycocalyx.
    • Describe podocytes (their shape) and slit diaphragms.
    • Describe reabsorption. What types of molecules are reabsorbed? How are they reabsorbed?
    • What are the distinguishing features of the proximal tubules and distal convoluted tubules?
    • What are some mechanisms for transporting molecules across a cell membrane or space? Which of these require energy, and why?
    • What structures are lined by urothelium?