A. Wong and R. Cianciolo
This chapter will cover the urinary system.
Chapter Learning Objectives
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Describe the components of the nephron, with specific reference to histologic features, location and function.
- Identify and describe the histologic features, location and function of the following components of the glomerulus: endothelial cells, glomerular basement membrane, podocytes, mesangial cells, Bowman’s space, Bowman’s capsule.
- Describe how plasma (intravascular) is filtered across the glomerular basement membrane, and describe the cells that contribute to the filtration barrier.
- Describe how the tubular segment of the nephron modifies filtrate to maintain homeostasis.
- Describe the anatomic and microanatomy of the lower urinary tract.
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to answer the following:
- Define the following renal components: Medullary ray, lobe, lobule, papilla and calyx
- How do the cortex, corticomedullary junction, and medulla differ?
- What are the 3 components of the glomerular filtration barrier? What are their properties?
- Describe endothelial fenestrations and glycocalyx.
- Describe podocytes (their shape) and slit diaphragms.
- Describe reabsorption. What types of molecules are reabsorbed? How are they reabsorbed?
- What are the distinguishing features of the proximal tubules and distal convoluted tubules?
- What are some mechanisms for transporting molecules across a cell membrane or space? Which of these require energy, and why?
- What structures are lined by urothelium?