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Appendix A

  • Page ID
    6877
  • [ "article:topic", "authorname:hawaiinutrition" ]

    This table compares the typical levels of recommended daily nutrient intake to the United States Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) and the United Kingdom’s Safe Upper Levels (SULs). The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and Adequate Intake (AI) values are considered to be levels of nutrient intake that meet or exceed the needs of practically all healthy people. The Daily Value amounts, that are currently used as reference values on food and supplement labels, are similar to the RDA/AI values, but differ in some cases. UL values are the amounts that are considered to be the maximum safe level of intake from food and supplements combined. SUL values are the maximum level of intake of a nutrient from dietary supplements that can be considered to be reasonably safe.

    How much is too much?

    Comparison of Dietary Reference Intake Values (for adult men and women) and Daily Values for Micronutrients with the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL),a,c Safe Upper Levels (SUL),d and Guidance Levelsd

    Nutrient
    RDA/AIb (men / women) ages 31-50
    Daily Value (Food Labels)
    ULc
    SUL or Guidance Leveld
    Selected Potential Effects of Excess Intake
    Vitamin A (mcg)
    900 / 700
    1500 (5000 IU)
    3000
    1500** (5000 IU)
    Liver damage, bone & joint pain, dry skin, loss of hair, headache, vomiting
    beta-Carotene (mg)
    7 (11,655 IU)
    Increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and those heavily exposed to asbestos
    Vitamin D (mcg)
    15 (600 IU)
    10 (400 IU)
    100
    25 (1000 IU)
    Calcification of brain, arteries, increased blood calcium, loss of appetite, nausea
    Vitamin E (mg)
    15
    20 (30 IU)
    1000
    540 (800 IU)
    Deficient blood clotting
    Vitamin K (mcg)
    120 / 90*
    80
    1000**
    Red blood cell damage/anemia; liver damage
    Thiamin (B1) (mg)
    1.2 / 1.1
    1.5
    100**
    Headache, nausea, irritability, insomnia, rapid pulse, weakness (7000+ mg dose)
    Riboflavin (B2) (mg)
    1.3 / 1.1
    1.7
    40**
    Generally considered harmless; yellow discoloration of urine
    Niacin (mg)
    16 / 14
    20
    35
    500**
    Liver damage, flushing, nausea, gastrointestinal problems
    Vitamin B6 (mg)
    1.3
    2
    100
    10
    Neurological problems, numbness and pain in limbs
    Vitamin B12 (mcg)
    2.4
    6
    2000**
     
    Folic acid (mcg)
    400
    400
    1000
    1000**
    Masks B12 deficiency (which can cause neurological problems)
    Pantothenic acid (mg)
    5*
    10
    200**
    Diarrhea & gastrointestinal disturbance (10,000+ mg/day)
    Biotin (mcg)
    30*
    300
    900**
    No reports of toxicity from oral ingestion
    Choline (mcg)
    550/425*
    3500
    Fishy body odor (trimethylaminuria), hepatotoxicity
    Vitamin C (mg)
    90 / 75
    60
    2000
    1000**
    Nausea, diarrhea, kidney stones
    Boron (mg)
    20
    9.6
    Adverse effects on male and female reproductive system
    Calcium (mg)
    1000
    1000
    2500
    1500**
    Nausea, constipation, kidney stones
    Chloride (mg)
    2300*
    3400
    3600
    Increased blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals (when consumed as sodium chloride)
    Chromium (mcg)
    35/25*
    120
    10,000**
    Potential adverse effects on liver and kidneys; picolinate form possibly mutagenic
    Cobalt (mg)
    1.4**
    Cardiotoxic effects; not appropriate in a dietary supplement except as vitamin B-12
    Copper (mcg)
    900
    2000
    10000
    10000
    Gastrointestinal distress, liver damage
    Fluoride (mg)
    4 / 3*
    10
    Bone, kidney, muscle, and nerve damage; supplement with professional guidance
    Germanium
    zero**
    Kidney toxin; should not be in a dietary supplement
    Iodine (mcg)
    150
    150
    1100
    500**
    Elevated thyroid hormone concentration
    Iron (mg)
    8 / 18
    18
    45
    17**
    Gastrointestinal distress, increased risk of heart disease, oxidative stress
    Magnesium (mg)
    420 / 320
    400
    350e
    400**
    Diarrhea
    Manganese (mg)
    2.3 / 1.8*
    2
    11
    4**
    Neurotoxicity
    Molybdenum (mcg)
    45
    75
    2000
    zero**
    Gout-like symptom; joint pains; increased uric acid
    Nickel (mcg)
    1000
    260**
    Increased sensitivity of skin reaction to nickel in jewelry
    Phosphorus (mg)
    700
    1000
    4000
    250**
    Alteration of parathyroid hormone levels; reduced bone mineral density
    Potassium (mg)
    4700*
    3500
    3700**
    Gastrointestinal damage
    Selenium (mcg)
    55
    70
    400
    450
    Nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, hair and nail loss
    Silicon (mg)
    700
    Low toxicity; possibility of kidney stones
    Sodium (mg)
    1500*
    2400
    2300
    Increased blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals (when consumed as sodium chloride)
    Vanadium (mg)
    1.8
    zero
    Gastrointestinal irritation; fatigue
    Zinc (mg)
    11 / 8
    15
    40
    25
    Impaired immune function, low HDL-cholesterol

    aFood and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Dietary Reference Intakes Tables.

    b(RDA) = Recommended Dietary Allowance, AI = Adequate Intake, indicated with *

    cUL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level (from food & supplements combined)

    dSUL = Safe Upper Levels; SULs and Guidance Levels (indicated by **) set by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals of the Food Standards Agency, United Kingdom. These are intended to be levels of daily intake of nutrients in dietary supplements that potentially susceptible individuals could take daily on a life-long basis without medical supervision in reasonable safety. When the evidence base was considered inadequate to set a SUL, Guidance Levels were set based on limited data. SULs and Guidance Levels tend to be conservative and it is possible that, for some vitamins and minerals, greater amounts could be consumed for short periods without risk to health. The values presented are for a 60 kg (132 lb) adult. Consult the full publication for values expressed per kg body weight. This FSA publication, Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Minerals, is available at: http://www.foodstandards.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/vitmin2003.pdf

    eThe UL for magnesium represents intake specifically from pharmacological agents and/or dietary supplements in addition to dietary intake.

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