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Key Terms Chapter 26: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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    62678
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    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    also known as vasopressin, a hormone that increases the volume of water reabsorbed from the collecting tubules of the kidney
    dehydration
    state of containing insufficient water in blood and other tissues
    dihydroxyvitamin D
    active form of vitamin D required by the intestinal epithelial cells for the absorption of calcium
    diuresis
    excess production of urine
    extracellular fluid (ECF)
    fluid exterior to cells; includes the interstitial fluid, blood plasma, and fluids found in other reservoirs in the body
    fluid compartment
    fluid inside all cells of the body constitutes a compartment system that is largely segregated from other systems
    hydrostatic pressure
    pressure exerted by a fluid against a wall, caused by its own weight or pumping force
    hypercalcemia
    abnormally increased blood levels of calcium
    hypercapnia
    abnormally elevated blood levels of CO2
    hyperchloremia
    higher-than-normal blood chloride levels
    hyperkalemia
    higher-than-normal blood potassium levels
    hypernatremia
    abnormal increase in blood sodium levels
    hyperphosphatemia
    abnormally increased blood phosphate levels
    hypocalcemia
    abnormally low blood levels of calcium
    hypocapnia
    abnormally low blood levels of CO2
    hypochloremia
    lower-than-normal blood chloride levels
    hypokalemia
    abnormally decreased blood levels of potassium
    hyponatremia
    lower-than-normal levels of sodium in the blood
    hypophosphatemia
    abnormally low blood phosphate levels
    interstitial fluid (IF)
    fluid in the small spaces between cells not contained within blood vessels
    intracellular fluid (ICF)
    fluid in the cytosol of cells
    metabolic acidosis
    condition wherein a deficiency of bicarbonate causes the blood to be overly acidic
    metabolic alkalosis
    condition wherein an excess of bicarbonate causes the blood to be overly alkaline
    plasma osmolality
    ratio of solutes to a volume of solvent in the plasma; plasma osmolality reflects a person’s state of hydration
    respiratory acidosis
    condition wherein an excess of carbonic acid or CO2 causes the blood to be overly acidic
    respiratory alkalosis
    condition wherein a deficiency of carbonic acid/CO2 levels causes the blood to be overly alkaline
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