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2: Basic Laboratory Measurements

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    Learning objectives

    1. Evaluate clinical data to determine pathways involved in metabolic homeostasis.
    2. Recognize the utility of values for blood lactate, urinalysis, ALT/AST, and lipid profiles in clinical decision making.
    3. Determine how enzymes are regulated by comparing the role of inhibitors and activators, with examples, including: transition state inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors, and competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors/activators (see section 1.2).
    4. Identify vitamins as cofactors and necessary components of biological systems and begin to associate common symptoms with nutritional deficiencies.

    The cell is the most fundamental unit of all eukaryotic organisms. Its components and their cellular interactions are essential to the inner workings of the human body. Cells are primarily influenced by:

    • the surrounding environment,
    • through cell-cell interactions, and
    • through circulating signals or hormones.

    As a clinician, your first indication of changes to these cellular components will be illustrated by the signs and symptoms of your patient. Following this generalized assessment, you will begin to dissect out a clinical diagnosis by interpreting basic lab values. Each of these elements are indicative of molecular changes ultimately leading to the presentation you are challenged with.

    Thumbnail: IronSV, Chemistry. CC BY 3.0. From Noun Project.

    This page titled 2: Basic Laboratory Measurements is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Renee J. LeClair (Virginia Tech Libraries' Open Education Initiative) .

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