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10: Genes, Genomes, and DNA

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    Learning objectives

    1. Define the word genome, and describe what composes the eukaryotic genome.
    2. Describe the chemical structure and physical properties of DNA.
    3. Outline the levels of structure of chromatin and chromosomes.
    4. Define the types of chromatin (heterochromatin, euchromatin, and facultative and constitutive chromatin).
    5. Describe the characteristics of nonrepetitive DNA, highly repetitive DNA, and moderately repetitive DNA and its relative abundance and significance throughout the genome.
    6. Describe sources and types of genetic polymorphism.
    7. Describe the mechanisms and implications of different classes of genetic mutation (genome mutation, chromosome mutation, and gene mutation).
    8. Emphasize the bidirectional and semidiscontinuous nature of DNA replication and the reasons for it.
    9. Outline the different types of DNA damage caused by various environmental conditions.
    10. Outline what is known about the different types of DNA repair mechanisms.

    The cell is the most fundamental unit of all eukaryotic organisms. Its components and their cellular interactions are essential to the inner workings of the cell as well as influencing the surrounding environment through cell interactions. Starting at the level of DNA, we will address how individual nucleotide changes can alter cellular process leading to the change of a cell (and therefore organismal) phenotype.

    Thumbnail: Grey, Kindred, Chapter 10. 2021. CC BY-SA 4.0. Added DNA double helix grooves by Biochemlife. CC BY-SA 4.0. From Wikimedia Commons.

    This page titled 10: Genes, Genomes, and DNA is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Renee J. LeClair (Virginia Tech Libraries' Open Education Initiative) .

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