# 15: Cellular Signaling


Learning objectives

1. Outline the general characteristics of signal transduction systems.
2. Describe the mechanism by which G protein coupled receptors produce secondary messengers.
3. Describe the points at which cascades can be regulated by phosphatases and inhibitors.
4. Describe phosphatidylinositol-derived second messengers and the functions of $$\ce{Ca2+}$$ as a second messenger and the downstream effectors that both activate.
5. Describe the characteristics of the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway.
6. Describe the signal transduction principles used in regulating glucose levels (pathways initiated by glucagon, epinephrine, and insulin).
7. Describe the general processes of cellular apoptosis
8. Describe the physiological role of membrane potential in signal transduction.

Thumbnail: Grey, Kindred, Chapter 15. 2021. CC BY 4.0.

This page titled 15: Cellular Signaling is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Renee J. LeClair (Virginia Tech Libraries' Open Education Initiative) .