# 10.3: Predisposing Factors

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General Factors

• Females
• Elderly
• Diabetes mellitus: The glucose in urine is a good culture medium for organisms. Diabetes also impairs the function of white blood cells and diabetic autonomic neuropathy may cause a lower motor neuron neuropathic bladder with poor bladder emptying.
• Immunocompromised patients:
• malnutrition
• HIV/AIDS
• cancer
• chemotherapy
• immunosuppression
• Analgesic abuse
• can cause papillary necrosis

## Local Factors

Any condition that impairs the normal flow of urine, or interferes with normal emptying can predispose to infection.

• Obstruction of upper tracts (kidneys and ureters)
• stones
• PUJ obstruction
• sloughed papillae (diabetics)
• urethral stricture
• post mid-urethral tape surgery
• Vesico-ureteric reflux
• Foreign bodes in urinary tract