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13: Female Reproductive System

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  • Learning Objectives

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

    • Identify the primary factor behind sex determination.
    • Identify which embryonic structures form the tubular genitalia for males and females.
    • Compare and contrast the histological structure of each stage of follicular development.
    • Identify the differences between ovarian structure in different species.
    • List the layers forming the following structures: Uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vestibule. What the composition of the innermost aspect of these structures.
    • Contrast the cytologic changes in vaginal mucosa during each stage of the estrus cycle. Outline the structures forming the avian reproductive tract.
    • Describe the structure of the mammary gland.

    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to answer the following:

    • What’s the difference between a primary oocyte and a primary follicle?
    • What’s the difference between a secondary oocyte and a secondary follicle?
    • List the structural differences between the primary, secondary and tertiary follicle.
    • Identify the following structures: Granulosa cells, theca interna, theca externa, cumulus oophorus, and corona radiata.
    • What are the segments of the female genital tract?
    • What are the segments of the uterine tube? What is the order from ovary to uterus?
    • What are the layers of the uterus? What are the individual layers of the endometrium called?
    • List (in all species) the types of surface epithelium which lines the: uterine tube, uterus, cervix, and vagina.
    • What are the species differences in cervical structure?
    • What are the various changes which take place in the canine vaginal mucosa during estrus?
    • List the structures in the female avian reproductive tract.

    This chapter will cover the female reproductive system.

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