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14.14: Amides- Structures and Names

  • Page ID
    15345
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     Learning Objectives
    • Identify the general structure for an amide.
    • Identify the functional group for an amide.
    • Names amides with common names.
    • Name amides according to the IUPAC system.

    The amide functional group has an nitrogen atom attached to a carbonyl carbon atom. If the two remaining bonds on the nitrogen atom are attached to hydrogen atoms, the compound is a simple amide. If one or both of the two remaining bonds on the atom are attached to alkyl or aryl groups, the compound is a substituted amide.

    amide group.jpg

    The carbonyl carbon-to-nitrogen bond is called an amide linkage. This bond is quite stable and is found in the repeating units of protein molecules, where it is called a peptide linkage.

    Simple amides are named as derivatives of carboxylic acids. The -ic ending of the common name or the -oic ending of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name of the carboxylic acid is replaced with the suffix -amide.

    naming.jpg

    Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Name each compound with the common name, the IUPAC name, or both.

    1. clipboard_e058ba88ac7fd31b4c53e349c494beba8.png
    2. clipboard_e4e581677a80df0618d1b7ec3c5482b2a.png
    Solution
    1. This amide has two carbon atoms and is thus derived from acetic acid. The OH of acetic acid is replaced by an NH2 group. The -ic from acetic (or -oic from ethanoic) is dropped, and -amide is added to give acetamide (or ethanamide in the IUPAC system).
    2. This amide is derived from benzoic acid. The -oic is dropped, and -amide is added to give benzamide.
    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Name each compound with the common name, the IUPAC name, or both.

    1. clipboard_e034f0f4ad2aa384c02ef17a1457a3aa5.png
    2. clipboard_ea72761843b67752dc441426669d9cc0b.png

    Key Takeaways

    • Amides have a general structure in which a nitrogen atom is bonded to a carbonyl carbon atom.
    • The functional group for an amide is as follows:

      KT.jpg

    • In names for amides, the -ic acid of the common name or the -oic ending of the IUPAC for the corresponding carboxylic acid is replaced by -amide.

    14.14: Amides- Structures and Names is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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