Calcium is taken up into the enterocyte through Transient Receptor Potential V6 (TRPV6), a calcium channel found on the brush border. Calbindin is the calcium binding protein that facilitates uptake through TRPV6 and transport across the enterocyte. Ca2+-Mg2+ ATPase functions to pump calcium out of the enterocyte and into circulation and to pump magnesium into the enterocyte, as shown below1.
Figure 12.211 Calcium uptake and absorption
As we have previously discussed, increased 1,25(OH)2D synthesis in the kidney causes increased binding to the vitamin D receptor, which increases calbindin synthesis. Increased calbindin ultimately increases calcium uptake and absorption.
Figure 12.212 Increased calbindin increases calcium absorption
There are a couple of calcium-binding compounds that inhibit its absorption. Therefore, even though some foods are good sources of calcium, the calcium is not very bioavailable. Oxalate, found in high levels in spinach, rhubarb, sweet potatoes, and dried beans, is the most potent inhibitor of calcium absorption2. Recall that calcium oxalate is one of the compounds that makes up kidney stones. Based on this understanding, it should not be a surprise that formation of this compound inhibits calcium absorption.
Figure 12.213 Structure of calcium oxalate3
Another inhibitor of calcium absorption is phytate. Phytate is found in whole grains and legumes3.
Figure 12.214 Structure of phytate4
References & Links
1. Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL. (2008) Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
2. Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, editors. (2006) Modern nutrition in health and disease. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.