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6.4.1: 1. Motivation and Methodology

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  • Without resource appropriate guidelines for submandibular tumours, both resident and volunteer surgeons from developed countries have little to guide them about best practice when working in resource limited settings. This might lead to inappropriate investigations, inappropriate treatment, and may compromise patients.

    The AfHNS Clinical Practice Guidelines for Submandibular Tumours and Cancers in Developing Countries and Limited Resource Settings tailor management of submandibular tumours and cancers according to diagnostic and therapeutic resources available to physicians and to their patients.


    The AfHNS convened a task force to enumerate resource appropriate guidelines for management of submandibular tumours in poorly resourced settings. This collaboration between physicians from African and developed countries included members of the AfHNS, American, and European colleagues. International guidelines were referenced and adapted for limited resources. Due to paucity of literature about management of salivary cancers in low resource settings, much of the recommendations represents expert opinion.

    Contributors to AfHNS Clinical Practice Guidelines for Submandibular Masses and Cancers in Developing Countries and Limited Resource Settings were: Johan Fagan (South Africa), Paul Onakoya (Nigeria), Anna Konney (Ghana), Mohammed Garba (Nigeria), Innocent Kundiona (Zimbabwe), Melesse Biadgelign (Ethiopia), Kenneth Baidoo (Ghana), Khaled Twier (Libya), Joyce Aswani (Kenya), Rajab Mugabo (Rwanda), Vincent Vander Poorten (Belgium), Patrick Bradley (UK), Mark Zafereo (USA).