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14.8: XIV Glossary

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    ABCDE: A mnemonic for assessing for melanoma developing in moles: Asymmetrical, Borders are irregular in shape, Color is various shades of brown or black, Diameter is larger than 6 mm., and the shape of the mole is Evolving.

    Apocrine sweat gland: Sweat glands associated with hair follicles in densely hairy areas that release organic compounds subject to bacterial decomposition causing odor.

    Blanching: To make white or pale by applying pressure.

    Cyanosis: A bluish discoloration caused by lack of oxygenation of the tissue.

    Dermis: The inner layer of skin with connective tissue, blood vessels, sweat glands, nerves, hair follicles, and other structures.

    Diaphoretic: Excessive, abnormal sweating.

    Ecchymosis: Bruising.

    Eccrine sweat gland: Sweat gland that produces hypotonic sweat for thermoregulation.

    Epidermis: The thin, uppermost layer of skin.

    Erythema: A red color of the skin.

    First-degree burn: A superficial burn that affects only the epidermis.

    Fourth-degree burn: Severe burn damaging the dermis and the underlying muscle and bone.

    Hypodermis: The layer of skin beneath the dermis composed of connective tissue and used for fat storage.

    Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin or sclera caused by underlying medical conditions.

    Keloid: A raised scar caused by overproduction of scar tissue.

    Lesion: An area of abnormal tissue.

    Lymphedema: A type of swelling that occurs when lymph fluid builds up in the body’s soft tissues due to damage to the lymph system.

    Melanin: Skin pigment produced by melanocytes scattered throughout the epidermis.

    Melanoma: Skin cancer characterized by the uncontrolled growth of melanocytes that commonly develops from a mole. Melanoma is the most fatal of all skin cancers because it is highly metastatic. Melanomas usually appear as asymmetrical brown and black patches with uneven borders and a raised surface.

    Petechiae: Tiny red dots caused by bleeding under the skin.

    Pressure injury: Skin breakdown caused when a patient’s skin and soft tissue press against a hard surface for a prolonged period of time, causing reduced blood supply and resulting in damaged tissue.

    Rule of Nines: A tool used in the emergency department to assess the total body surface area burned to quickly estimate intravenous fluid requirements.

    Second-degree burn: Burn affecting both the epidermis and a portion of the dermis, resulting in swelling and a painful blistering of the skin.

    Skin turgor: The skin’s elasticity and its ability to change shape and return to normal when gently grasped between two fingers.

    Third-degree burn: Severe burn that fully extends into the epidermis and dermis, destroying the tissue and affecting the nerve endings and sensory function.

    This page titled 14.8: XIV Glossary is shared under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Ernstmeyer & Christman (Eds.) (OpenRN) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.