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1: Matter and Solutions

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    The study of chemistry will open your eyes to a fascinating world. Chemical processes are continuously at work all around us. They happen as you cook and eat food, strike a match, shampoo your hair, and even read this page. Chemistry is called the central science because knowledge of chemical principles is essential for other sciences. You might be surprised at the extent to which chemistry pervades your life.

    • 1.1: What is Chemistry?
      Chemistry is the study of matter—what it consists of, what its properties are, and how it changes. Being able to describe the ingredients in a cake and how they change when the cake is baked is called chemistry. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space—that is, anything that is physically real.
    • 1.2: The Classification of Matter
      Matter can be described with both physical properties and chemical properties. Matter can be identified as an element, a compound, or a mixture.
    • 1.3: Solutions
      Solutions form because a solute and a solvent experience similar intermolecular interactions.
    • 1.4: The Dissolution Process
      When a solute dissolves, its individual particles are surrounded by solvent molecules and are separated from each other.
    • 1.5: Intermolecular Forces
      The physical properties of condensed matter (liquids and solids) can be explained in terms of the kinetic molecular theory. In a liquid, intermolecular attractive forces hold the molecules in contact, although they still have sufficient kinetic energy to move past each other. Intermolecular attractive forces, collectively referred to as van der Waals forces, are responsible for the behavior of liquids and solids and are electrostatic in nature.
    • 1.S: Chemistry and Matter (Summary)
      To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the bold terms in the following summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.

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