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Chapter 12: Maternal, Infant, Childhood, and Adolescent Nutrition

  • Page ID
    1923
  • [ "article:topic-guide", "TextMap" ]

    This chapter is the first of two that exploring nutrition through the life cycle and it looks at pregnancy through the toddler years. Topics include pregnancy, breastfeeding, introducing solid foods, and nutrition during the toddler years.

    • 12.1: Chapter Introduction
      Nutritional choices that parents make, such as the decision to breastfeed or bottle-feed, not only affect early childhood development, but also a child’s health and wellness later in life. It is imperative to promote and support the best practices for the well-being of infants and mothers alike. In this chapter, we will examine how dietary choices—from daily caloric intake for pregnant women to serving sizes for toddlers—impact health and wellness during pregnancy and the early childhood years.
    • 12.2: The Human Life Cycle
      The human body constantly develops and changes throughout the human life cycle, and food provides the fuel for those changes. The major stages of the human life cycle include pregnancy, infancy, the toddler years, childhood, puberty, older adolescence, adulthood, middle age, and the senior years. Proper nutrition and exercise ensure health and wellness at each stage of the human life cycle.
    • 12.3: Pregnancy and Nutrition
      During pregnancy, it is imperative that a woman meet the nutritional needs both she and her unborn child require, which includes an increase in certain micronutrients, such as iron and folate. Starting BMI determines how much weight a woman needs to gain throughout her pregnancy. In an average pregnancy, a woman gains an extra 30 pounds. During the second and third trimesters, a woman’s energy requirements increase by 340 calories  and 450 calories per day for the second and third trimesters.
    • 12.4: Infancy and Nutrition
      Parents and other caregivers should use growth charts to track an infant’s development and determine how to best meet their child’s nutritional needs. For the first four to six months of life, children should consume breast milk exclusively. For the next six months, solid foods should be introduced gradually into an infant’s diet as parents and caregivers continue to provide breast milk. Breast milk is ideal for infants and provides all of the nutrients they need to grow and develop.
    • 12.5: Nutrition in the Toddler Years
      By the toddler years, young children are able to self-feed and begin to develop eating habits and preferences. The energy requirements for ages two to three are about 1,000 to 1,400 calories per day, and in general, a toddler needs to consume about 40 calories for every inch of height. Growth slows during the toddler years, but children are more active at this stage and undergo a great deal of intellectual, emotional, and social development.
    • 12.6: Childhood and Nutrition
      The recommended intakes of macronutrients and micronutrients for children are higher relative to body size compared with nutrient needs during adulthood. Also, children’s daily energy needs vary depending on their level of physical activity and their gender. Girls ages four to eight require 1,200 to 1,800 calories, while boys ages four to eight need 1,200 to 2,000 calories. Some food- and nutrition-related problems that can affect school-aged children include malnutrition and food allergies.
    • 12.7: Puberty and Nutrition
      The daily energy requirements for preteens differ according to gender, growth, and activity level. Girls ages nine to thirteen should consume 1,400 to 2,200 calories per day, and boys should consume 1,600 to 2,600 calories per day. Nutritional concerns for older children include malnutrition and obesity. Preteens should be encouraged to develop good habits, including consuming a healthy diet and regularly exercising.
    • 12.8: Older Adolescence and Nutrition
      Older adolescents experience numerous physical changes and must increase their energy intake to support these changes and meet nutrient needs. Nutrient needs are greater during adolescence than at any other time in the life cycle, except during pregnancy. The daily energy requirements for ages fourteen to eighteen are 1,800 to 2,400 calories for girls, and 2,000 to 3,200 calories for boys, depending on activity level. Nutritional concerns for older adolescents include eating disorders.
    • 12.E: Exercises