Skip to main content
Medicine LibreTexts

Chapter 14: Endocrine System

  • Page ID
    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Learning Objectives
    • Name and describe the main functions of the endocrine system.
    • Describe the role of the endocrine system in modulating body conditions and functions through negative feedback systems.
    • Compare the nervous and endocrine systems with respect to speed of action, area of influence, and duration of effects.
    • Explain that the effectiveness of a hormone depends upon many factors and therefore is difficult to measure.
    • For each of the following hormones, describe its overall effects and the effects of aging on the hormone's ability to perform its roles: growth hormone (GH), melatonin, thymosin, aldosterone, testosterone (in males), estrogen and progesterone (in females).
    • Explain that the effectiveness of several hormones does not change substantially with aging.
    • Name and describe two main temporary effects and three main permanent effects from hormone changes resulting from menopause.
    • Describe beneficial and harmful effects from estrogen replacement therapy (ERT).
    • Describe the role of insulin and the effects of aging on its effectiveness.
    • For diabetes mellitus among the elderly, name three contributing factors and five harmful effects and describe real life practical consequences from the harmful effects.
    • Name and describe the three common signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus.
    • Name and describe methods for reducing the incidence and severity of problems from diabetes mellitus among the elderly.

    This page titled Chapter 14: Endocrine System is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Augustine G. DiGiovanna via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.