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Chapter 2: Molecules, Cells, and Theories

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    Learning Objectives
    • Explain the importance of chemistry and chemical reactions.
    • Explain the importance of cells, proper cell structure and functioning.
    • Describe the hierarchy of structure and functioning in the body.
    • Name important body chemicals and list their main functions
    • Describe methods of formation of, harmful effects from, and body defense mechanisms against free radicals.
    • Describe methods of formation of and harmful effects from glycation.
    • List main parts of cells and their functions.
    • Explain how genes control cell structure and function and body structure and function.
    • Describe the main steps in cell reproduction by mitosis.
    • List reasons why mitosis is important.
    • Describe the Hayflick limit and its possible importance to aging and disease..
    • Describe neoplasia and its two main forms (i.e., benign neoplasia,, cancer).
    • Describe apoptosis and its relevance in aging.
    • Explain relationships between studying aging and studying genetics.
    • Describe the structure and functions of intercellular materials.
    • Distinguish between evolutionary theories of aging and physiological theories of aging.
    • Distinguish between programmed theories of aging and stochastic theories of aging.
    • List evolutionary theories of aging.
    • Describe, compare and contrast the disposable body theory, the antagonistic pleiotropy theory, and the accumulation of late-acting error theory of aging.
    • List and briefly describe physiological theories of aging (genetic, rate of living, free radical, mitochondrial, mitochondrial DNA, clinker, cross-linkage, hormone, calcium, immune system, wear and tear, network) and their relevance to aging.
    • Explain why forming and testing theories of aging are important.

    This page titled Chapter 2: Molecules, Cells, and Theories is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Augustine G. DiGiovanna via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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