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10.5: Water-Soluble Vitamins Summary

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    Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Vitamin Food Sources Recommended Intake for Adults Major Functions Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms Groups at Risk of Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

    Vitamin C Fact Sheet
    Orange juice, grapefruit juice, strawberries, tomato, sweet red pepper

    Vitamin C in Foods
    75-90 mg/day Antioxidant, collagen synthesis, hormone and neurotransmitter synthesis Scurvy, bleeding gums, joint pain, poor wound healing, Smokers, alcoholics, elderly Kidney stones, GI distress, diarrhea 2000 mg/day
    Thiamin (B1)

    Thiamin Fact Sheet
    Pork, enriched and whole grains, fish, legumes

    Thiamin in Foods
    1.1-1.2 mg/day Coenzyme: assists in glucose metabolism, RNA, DNA, and ATP synthesis Beriberi: fatigue, confusion, movement impairment, swelling, heart failure Alcoholics, older adults, eating disorders None reported Not determined
    Riboflavin (B2)

    Riboflavin Fact Sheet
    Beef liver, enriched breakfast cereals, yogurt, steak, mushrooms, almonds, eggs

    Riboflavin in Foods
    1.1-1.3 mg/day Coenzyme: assists in glucose, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, electron carrier, other B vitamins are dependent on Ariboflavinosis: dry scaly skin, mouth inflammation and sores, sore throat, itchy eyes, light sensitivity None None reported Not determined
    Niacin (B3)

    Niacin Fact Sheet
    Meat, poultry, fish, peanuts, enriched grains

    Niacin in Foods
    14-16 NE/day Coenzyme: assists in glucose, fat, and protein metabolism, electron carrier Pellagra: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death Alcoholics Nausea, rash, tingling extremities 35 mg/day from fortified foods and supplements
    Pantothenic Acid (B5)

    Pantothenic Acid Fact Sheet
    Sunflower seeds, fish, dairy products, widespread in foods

    Pantothenic Acid in Foods
    5 mg/day Coenzyme: assists in glucose, fat, and protein metabolism, cholesterol and neurotransmitter synthesis Muscle numbness and pain, fatigue, irritability Alcoholics Fatigue, rash Not determined
    B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet
    Meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts

    Vitamin B6 in Foods
    1.3-1.7 mg/day Coenzyme; assists in amino-acid synthesis, glycogneolysis, neurotransmitter and hemoglobin synthesis Muscle weakness, dermatitis, mouth sores, fatigue, confusion Alcoholics Nerve damage 100 mg/day

    Biotin Fact Sheet
    Egg yolks, fish, pork, nuts and seeds

    Biotin in Foods
    30 mcg/day Coenzyme; assists in glucose, fat, and protein metabolism, amino-acid synthesis Muscle weakness, dermatitis, fatigue, hair loss Those consuming raw egg whites None reported Not determined

    Folate Fact Sheet
    Leafy green vegetables, enriched grains, orange juice

    Folate in Foods
    400 mcg/day Coenzyme; amino acid synthesis, RNA, DNA, and red blood cell synthesis Diarrhea, mouth sores, confusion, anemia, neural-tube defects Pregnant women, alcoholics Masks B12 deficiency 1000 mcg/day from fortified foods and supplements
    B12 (cobalamin)

    Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet
    Meats, poultry, fish

    Vitamin B12 in Foods
    2.4 mcg/day Coenzyme; fat and protein catabolism, folate function, red-blood-cell synthesis Muscle weakness, sore tongue, anemia, nerve damage, neural-tube defects Vegans, elderly None reported Not determined

    Choline Fact Sheet
    Egg yolk, wheat, meat, fish, synthesis in the body

    Choline in Foods
    425-550 mg/day Synthesis of neurotransmitters and cell membranes, lipid transport Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, muscle damage, interfered brain development in fetus None Liver damage, excessive sweating, hypotension 3.5 g/day
    Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Water-Soluble Vitamins from Human Nutrition, 2020 Edition by Draper, Revilla, & Titchenal, and edited by Christine Bisson to include links to National Institutes of Health - Office of Dietary Supplements - Consumer Fact Sheets and Nutrient Content of Foods from USDA - Agricultural Research Service - Food Data Central - Component Search, is licensed CC BY-NC-SA

    10.5: Water-Soluble Vitamins Summary is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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