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10.8: Trace Minerals Summary

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    44005
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    Trace Minerals

    Micronutrient Food Sources Recommended Intakes for Adults Major Functions Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms Groups at Risk for Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    Iron

    Iron Fact Sheet
    Red meat, egg yolks, dark leafy vegetables, dried fruit, iron-fortified foods

    Iron in Foods
    8-18 mg/day Assists in energy
    production, DNA synthesis required for red blood cell function
    Anemia: fatigue, paleness, faster heart rate Infants and preschool children, adolescents, women, pregnant women, athletes, vegetarians Liver damage, increased risk of diabetes and cancer 45 mg/day
    Copper

    Copper Fact Sheet
    Nuts, seeds, whole grains, seafood

    Copper in Foods
    900 mcg/day Assists in energy
    production, iron metabolism
    Anemia: fatigue, paleness, faster heart rate Those who consume excessive zinc supplements Vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, liver damage 10 mg/day
    Zinc

    Zinc Fact Sheet
    Oysters, wheat germ, pumpkin seeds, squash,, beans, sesame seeds, tahini, beef, lamb

    Zinc in Foods
    8-11 mg/day Assists in energy
    production, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis; required for hemoglobin synthesis
    Growth retardation in children, hair loss, diarrhea, skin sores, loss of appetite, weight loss Vegetarians, older adults Depressed immune function 40 mg/day
    Selenium

    Selenium Fact Sheet
    Meat, seafood, eggs, nuts

    Selenium in Foods
    55 mcg/day Essential for thyroid hormone activity Fatigue, muscle pain, weakness, Keshan disease Populations where the soil is low in selenium Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue 400 mcg/day
    Iodine

    Iodine Fact Sheet
    Iodized salt, seaweed, dairy products

    Iodine in Foods
    150 mcg/day Making thyroid hormone, metabolism, growth and development Goiter, cretinism, other signs and symptoms include fatigue, depression, weight gain, itchy skin, low heart-rate Populations where the soil is low in iodine, and iodized salt is not used Enlarged thyroid 1110 mcg/day
    Chromium

    Chromium Fact Sheet
    Meats, nuts and whole grain

    Chromium in Foods
    25-35 mcg/day Assists insulin in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism abnormal glucose metabolism Malnourished children None Not determined

    Fluoride

    Fluoride Fact Sheet

    Fluoridated water, foods prepared in fluoridated water, seafood

    Fluoride in Foods
    3-4 mg/day Component of mineralized bone, provides structure and microarchitecture, stimulates new bone growth Increased risk of dental caries Populations with non fluoridated water Fluorosis mottled teeth, kidney damage 10 mg/day
    Manganese

    Manganese Fact Sheet
    Legumes, nuts, leafy green vegetables

    Manganese in Foods
    1.8-2.3 mg/day Glucose synthesis, amino-acid catabolism Impaired growth, skeletal abnormalities, abnormal glucose metabolism None Nerve damage 11 mg/day
    Molybdenum

    Molybdenum Fact Sheet
    Milk, grains, legumes

    Molybdenum in Foods
    45 mcg/day Cofactor for a number of enzymes Unknown None Arthritis, joint inflammation 2 mg/day
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Trace Minerals from Human Nutrition, 2020 Edition by Draper, Revilla, & Titchenal, and edited by Christine Bisson to include links to National Institutes of Health - Office of Dietary Supplements - Consumer Fact Sheets and Nutrient Content of Foods from USDA - Agricultural Research Service - Food Data Central - Component Search, is licensed CC BY-NC-SA

    10.8: Trace Minerals Summary is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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