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10.7: Major Minerals Summary

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    Major Minerals

    Micronutrient Food Sources Recommended Intakes for Adults Major Functions Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms Groups at Risk for Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)


    Calcium Fact Sheet

    Yogurt, cheese, sardines, milk, orange juice, turnip

    Calcium in Foods
    1,000 mg/day Component of mineralized bone, provides structure and microarchitecture Increased risk of osteoporosis Postmenopausal women, those who are lactose intolerant, or vegan Kidney stones 2,500 mg


    Phosphorus Fact Sheet

    Salmon, yogurt, turkey, chicken, beef, lentils

    Phosphorus in Foods
    700 mg/day Structural component of bones, cell membrane, DNA and RNA, and ATP Bone loss, weak bones Older adults, alcoholics None 3,000 mg


    Magnesium Fact Sheet

    Whole grains and legumes, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, beets, collards, and kelp

    Magnesium in Foods
    420 mg/day Component of mineralized bone, ATP synthesis and utilization, carbohydrate, lipid,protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis Tremor, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, nausea Alcoholics, individuals with kidney and gastrointestinal disease Nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure 350 mg/day
    Sulfur Protein foods

    Sulfur in Foods
    None specified Structure of some vitamins and amino acids, acid-base balance None when protein needs are met None None Not determined
    Sodium Processed foods, table salt, pork, chicken

    Sodium in Foods
    < 2,300 mg/day; ideally 1,500 mg/day Major positive extracellular ion, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance Muscle cramps People consuming too much water, excessive sweating, those with vomiting or diarrhea High blood pressure 2,300 mg/day

    Potassium Fact Sheet
    Fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, milk

    Potassium in Foods
    4700 mg/day Major positive intracellular ion, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance Irregular heartbeat, muscle cramps People consuming diets high in processed meats, those with vomiting or diarrhea Abnormal heartbeat Not determined
    Chloride Table salt, processed foods <3600 mg/day; ideally 2300 mg/day Major negative extracellular ion, fluid balance Unlikely none None 3,600 mg/day
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Major Minerals from Human Nutrition, 2020 Edition by Draper, Revilla, & Titchenal, and edited by Christine Bisson to include links to National Institutes of Health - Office of Dietary Supplements - Consumer Fact Sheets and Nutrient Content of Foods from USDA - Agricultural Research Service - Food Data Central - Component Search, is licensed CC BY-NC-SA

    10.7: Major Minerals Summary is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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